Psych Final

  1. Concept Mapping
    Student's diagram of his or her understanding of a concept
  2. Discovery Learning
    Bruner's approach, in which students work on thier own to discover basic principles.
  3. Inductive Reasoning
    Formulating general principles based on knowledge of examples and details.
  4. Intuitive Reasoning
    Making imaginative leaps to correct perceptions or workable solutions
  5. Deductive Reasoning
    Drawing conclusions by applying rules or principles; logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution.
  6. Guided Discovery
    An adaptation of discovery learning, in which the teacher provides some direction.
  7. Advance Organizer
    Statement of inclusive concepts to introduce and sum up material that follows.
  8. Schema-driven problem solving
    Recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution.
  9. Response Set
    Rigidity; tendency to respond in the most familiar way.
  10. Belief Perseverance
    The tendency to hold onto beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence.
  11. Confirmation Bias
    Seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while disconfirming evidence.
  12. Insight
    Sudden realization of a solution
  13. Divergent Thinking
    Coming up with many possible solutions.
  14. Convergent Thinking
    Narrowing possibilities to a single answer.
  15. Learning Strategies
    General plans for approaching learning tasks.
  16. Learning Tactics
    Specific techniques for learning, such as using mnemonics or outlining a passage.
  17. Cmaps
    Tools for concept mapping developed by the Institute for Human Machine Cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the Internet.
  18. Epistemological Beliefs
    Beliefs about the structure, stability, and certainty of knowledge and how knowledge is best learned.
  19. Low-Road Transfer
    Spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills.
  20. High-Road Transfer
    Application of abstract knowledge learned inone situation to a different situation.
  21. Inquiry Learning
    Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions
  22. Problem-based Learning
    Methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have "right" answers.
  23. Social Learning Theory
    Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others.
  24. Social Cognitive Theory
    Theory that adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory.
  25. Self-efficacy
    A person's sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task.
  26. Modeling
    Changes in behavior, thinking, or emotions that happen through observing another person-a model.
  27. Self-Regulation
    Process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach goals.
  28. Self-regulated learning
    A view of learning as skills and will applied to analyzing learning tasks, setting goals and planning how to do the task, applying skills, and especially making adjustments about how learning is carried out.
  29. Situated Learning
    The idea that skills and knowledge are tied to the situation in which they were learned and difficult to apply in new setting.
  30. Multiple representations of content
    Considering problems using various analgoies, examples, and metaphors.
  31. Spiral Curriculum
    Bruner's designe for teaching that introduces the fundamental structure of all subjects early in the school years, then revisits the subjects in more and more complex forms over time.
  32. Cognitive Apprenticeship
    A relationship in which a less experienced learner acquires knowledge and skills under the guidance of an expert.
  33. Stand-alone thinking skills programs
    Programs that teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject matter knowledge.
  34. Critical Thinking
    Evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution.
  35. Locus of causality
    The location-internal or external-of the cause of behavior.
  36. Hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's model of seven levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization.
  37. Self-actualization
    fulfilling one's potential
  38. Deficiency needs
    maslow's four lower-level needs, which must be satisfied first.
  39. Being Needs
    Maslow's three higher-level needs, sometimes called growth needs.
  40. Need for autonomy
    the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external rewards or pressures, determine our actions.
  41. Goal orientations
    Patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school.
  42. Ego-involved Learners
    Students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others.
  43. Attribution Theories
    Descriptions fo how individuals' explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior.
  44. Self-efficacy
    Beliefs about personal competence in a particular situation
  45. Learned Helplessness
    the expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one's efforts will lead to failure.
  46. Authentic task
    Tasks that have some connection to real-life problems the students will face outside the classroom.
  47. Constructivist Approach
    View that empahsizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information.
  48. Direct instruction/explicit teaching
    Systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills, facts, and information
  49. Active teaching
    Teaching characterized by high levels of teacher explanation, demonstration, and interaction with students.
  50. Basic Skills
    Clearly structured knowledge that is needed for later learning and that can be taught step by step.
  51. Scripted Cooperation
    Learning strategy in which two students take turns summarizing material and criticizing the summaries.
  52. Sustaining expectation effect
    Student performance maintained at a certain level because teachers don't recognize improvements.
  53. Whole-language approach
    A philosophical approach to teaching and learning that stresses learning through authentic, real-life tasks. Emphasizes using language to learn, integrating learning across skills and subjects, and respecting the language abilities of student and teacher.
  54. Differentiated instruction
    A flexible approach to teaching that matches content, process, and product based on student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
  55. Norm Groups
    A group whose average score serves as a standard for evaluating any student's score on a test.
  56. Variability
    Degree of difference or deviation from mean.
  57. Range
    Distance between the highest and the lowest scores in a group.
  58. Grade-equivalent score
    Measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade.
  59. Standard scores
    Scores based on the standard deviation.
  60. Assessment Bias
    Qualities of an assessment instrument that offend or unfairly penalize a group of students because of the students' gender, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, etc.
  61. Diagnostic tests
    Individually administered tests to identify special learning problems.
  62. Constructed-response format
    Assessment procedures that require the student to create an answer instead of selecting an answer from a set of choices.
Card Set
Psych Final
Ed Psych Final Terms