functional unit of the kidney?
Functions of the Nephrons
fltration of substance and reabsorption
Filtration of substances goes from the________to the _________
Glomerulus to the bowmans capsule
3 things that affect the degree of filtration
- 1 blood pressure (hypotension decreases filtration)
- 2 amt of blood reaching the glomerulus (ie shock causes pools in capillarys decreasing blood to vital organs causing a decrease in filtration)
- 3 laws off defusion (substances move from a high conc. to a low conc.
Freely filtered substances
- 1 Water
- 2 Electrolytes
- 3 Glucose
- 4 amino acids
- 5 Urea & Creatinine (non protein)
urea comes from?
Creatinine comes from?
Renal tubules to the blood stream
what two things can control reabsorption?
how do hormones play a part in reabsorption?
- ADH: realsed from the pituitary and tells tubules to reabsorb h20
- Aldosterone: released from the adrenals controls sodium reabsorption and potassium excreation
normal blood glucose level in dogs?
should there be glucose in a normal pt's urine?
highly concentrated urine increase your chance of seeing?
positive and negatives of a morning sample?
- +high conc. has better chance of finding crystals
- -Poor cytology from the sample sitting
Recently formed samples +/-
- +good cytology
- -urine is dilute decreasing the chance of seeing abnormalities and dilute urine is a hypotonic solution the can cause cells (rbcs) to swell and rupture
4 methods of collecting urine
- Manual expression
Advantages of a voided sample
- -no iatrogenic trauma/infx
- -clients can do it
- -easiest on pt
Disadvantage of Voided sample
- -animal wont go
- -poor method for culture due to possible contamination
Advantages of Manual expression
-convienient b4 sx
disadvantages of manual expression
- -may require anesthsia
- -big dogs with tense abdominal muscles are difficult
- -iatrogenic trauma which causes in increase in RBCs
- -can rupture the bladder
- -if pt has cystitus you can drive the bacteria into the Ureters
how to preform manual expression
- -palpate bladder with finger pressure
- - apply gental steady pressure
- be patient so sphincter can open
advantages of catherization
- -usually an immediate sample
- -may releive urinary obstruction
- -if using foley can moniter urinary output
- -can use for culture
Disadvantages of catheterization
- -iatrogenic trauma/infx
- -may require anesthesia
types of catheters
- cats-tom cat
- dog-red rubber, polypropylene (stiffer and longer), foley (indwelling) females-bitch
Use of catheters
- -use smallest that will allow for passage of urine
- -clean and sterile (cath, lube, gloves) (exception: polypropylene)
- pinch tubing b4 pulling out
- -discard the 1st part of the sample to decrease bac. contamin.
- -immediate sample
- -no anesthesia required
- -best for urine culture
Disadvantages of Cystocentesis
-iatrogenic trauma and infx= increased RBC
how to preform cystocentesis
- -palpate the bladder if possible
- -Female dogs: dorsal recumb.
- -22g Ga 1-1.5 inches long
- -6cc-12cc syringe
- -may also do in lateral or standing
- -draw as much urine as you can (bladder will shrink, wall thickens, hole closes)
- -if you miss, backout with neg. pressure and try again
- -Never redirect you could hit the colon!
4 parts of a routine U/A
- macroscopic evaluation
- Urine Chemistrys
- microscopic Evaluation
how long can urine sit at room temp?
if standing at room temp what will happen
bacteria multiply, crystals increase, urine gets cloudy, cells disntegrate, cast breakdown, pH changes (increased due to lost CO2, Urease + bacteria
how long can u refridgerate urine
how do you chem. preserve urine
- 1gtt of 40% formaldeyde to 1oz of urine
- --MUST DO CHEMS FIRST (dipsticks)