Plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self pollinate
Corssing of two true-breeding parents
True breeding parents
Hybrid offspring of P generation
Offspring of F1 generation
Law of segregation
1. Alternative versions of gene account for variations in inherited characters
2. For each character; an organism inherits two allels, one from each parent
3. If the two allels at a locus differ, then one, the dominate allele, determines the organism's appearance; the other has no noticable affect on the organism's appearance.
4. The two allels for a heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different genes.
Alternative versions of a gene
used to predict allel composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of know genetic make up.
An organism with a pair of identical allels for a character
An organism taht has two different alleles for a gene
An organism's observed traits
An organism's genetic make up
Breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a recessive homozygote in order to revel the genotype of an organism.
Heterogzygous in one character
Heterozygous in two characters
Law of independent assortment
Each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation. *only applies to genes located on different chromosomes*
Inheritance Deviates from Mendelian Patterns when:
-alleles are not completely dominate or recessive
-a gene has more than 2 alleles
-A single gene produces multiple phenotypes
Situation in which the phenotype of herterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individual's homozyjous of either allele
two alleles both affect the pheontype in separate, distinguishable ways
Brain cells cannot metabolize certain lipids and lipids accumulate in the brain.
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
"standing upon", a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus
Characters that vary along a continuum. Example-skin pigment varies along a continuum
An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
Norm of reaction
Range of phenotypes produced by a single genotype, due to environment influences. Example-red blood cell count increases at higher elevations
Many factors, both genetic and environmental, collectively influence phenotype
Information about a family's history for a particular trait and assembling this info into a family tree.
Offspring with one recessive allele
A type of dominate trait dwarfism
Degenerative disease of the nervous system; lethal dominate allele
Needle is inserted into uterus and extracts a 10 mL sample of amniotic fluid
Chronic villus sampling
Tube is inserted through cervix into uterus and suctions tiny sample of tissue from placenta
Chromosome Theory of Interitance
Principle stating that genes are located on chromosomes and the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns' genes have specific loci along chromosomes and the chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment.
Phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
A gene located on either sex chromosome
Sex-linked disorder which causes increasing muscle loss caused by a lack of dystrophin
Sex-link blood disorder
Inactive X chromosome which condenses and lies along the nuclear envelope of a cell
Inactivation of X chromosome...
Involves modification of the DNA
Genes on the same chromosomes that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
The production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent
Offspring with new genetic combinations
Reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis
an ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome.
Probability of crossing over
The farther apart two genes are, the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency.
A genetic map based on recombination frequencies
The distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to 1% recombination frequency
locates genes with respect to chromosomal features
Members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number
An aneuploid zygote with a missing chromosome
Three of the same chromosomes are located in a cell
Organisms with more than two complete chromosome sets
A chromosomal fragment is lost
An extra segment on a chromosome
A chromosomal fragment attaches in reverse on a chromosome
Chromosome fragment is moved from one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome
Phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent. *caused by methly group that attaches to cytosine nucleotids and silences the allele. Sometimes works in reverse (example: Igf2 allele)