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  1. Which ultrasound system control automatically calibrates for measurements?
    A.) Reject.
    B.) Near gain.
    C.) Overall gain.
    D.) Depth.
    D.) Depth. Depth control automatically adjusts (or calibrates) depth markers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Increasing system gain can reduce technical artifacts.

    True or False
    False: Increasing gain will increase specular echoes, which generally increases artifacts.
  3. The purpose of the time-gain compensation (TGC) circuit is:
    A.) To selectively eliminate weak echos.
    B.) To compensate for loss of ultrasound energy (attenuation) as the beam enters the body.
    C.) To enhance far-field echos
    D.) To suppress near-field echos.
    D.,b., and d.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following are true regarding the side lobes seen in two-dimensional images?
    a.) They are generated from the edge of individual transducer elements.
    b.) They are greater problem with mechanical systems.
    c.) They are a greater problem with phased-array systems.
    d.) They display fuzzy areas on the image.
    a and c.
  5. In a parasternal long-axis transducer position, imaging is being done from the wrong intercostal space when:
    A.) The interventricular septum and the anterior aortic root wall meet at a right angle.
    B.) The interventricular septum and the posterior aortic root wall meet.
    C.) The interventricular septum and the anterior aortic root wall are contiguous.
    D.)The interventriular septum and the anterior aortic root wall do not meet.
    A. c. and d.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Whith which of the following conditions would a contrast agent not likely be used to enhance the echo diagnosis?
    A.) Ventricular septal defect.
    B.) Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
    C.) Patent ductus arteriosus.
    D.) Atrial septal defect.
    B.) Contrast agents are more helpful in defining suspected shunts.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Left-to-right shunts are more difficult than right-to-left shunts to detect with peripheral-vein contrast injections because:
    a.) Contrast is totally filtered out at the pulmonary capillary level.
    b.) Negative contrast is not as easy to identify as positive contrast.
    c.) Microbubbles will not travel left to right because of pressure differences
    d.) The microbubbles traveling from the right side into the left are rare and difficult to see.
    b and d
  8. In which condition could amyl nitrite be useful?

    A.) Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
    B.) aortic stenosis.
    C.) Mitral stenosis.
    D.) Atrial septal defect.
    A.) Amyl nitrite may increase the systolic anterior motion(SAM) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet in IHSS
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. In the patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) with no systolic anterior motion (SAM) at rest, SAM may be demonstrated by the use of:
    A.) the valsalva maneuver.
    B.) Inspiration
    C.) Amyl nitrite.
    D.) Expiration
    A.) and b.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. When using a large sample volume in performing a Doppler examination, the operator:
    A.) Reduces the sensitivity of the instrument.
    B.) Increases the chances of erroneously detecting flow in adjacent chambers.
    C.) minimizes the chances of missing jets.
    D.) lengthens the examination time.
    C.) and c.)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. The apical four-chamber view is frequently the first approach for a Doppler study because:
    A.) It is the easiest location from which to obtain image and Doppler information.
    B.) More abnormalities can be identified from this location.
    C.) The transducer is closest to the valves in this position.
    D.) The Doppler beam is parallel to the flow through multiple valves.
    D.) There is no single "easiest" location for Doppler imaging. The transducer is closer to the valves in the parasternal views. Since the Doppler beam is parallel to the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves at the apex, this is a good screening location. Since may jets are eccentric, it may not be true that "more" abnormalities are detected from the apex-a low parasternal view is used very successfully with color flow.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Parasternal Lon
  13. Parasternal long-axis views are good for Doppler applications because of the relationship of angle to flow.
    True or False
    False: Optimal Doppler angles are 0degrees or 180 degrees. parasternal views approximate angles of 90 degrees diving a cosine of 0.0.
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