Chapter 18

  1. Type of Shocks
    • —Hypovolemic
    • —Cardiogenic
    • —Vasogenic
    • —Anaphylactic
    • Septic
  2. CHF
    Congestive Heart Failure
  3. Causes of CHF
    • —Impaired Cardiac Function:
    • —Myocardial diseases:
    • —Cardiomyopathy, —Myocarditis, Coronary Insufficiency, —Myocardial Infarction
    • —Valvular Heart Disease
    • —Congenital Heart Disease
    • —Constrictive Pericarditis
  4. Diagnosis of CHF
    • —Need to determine underlying cause
    • Need to determine extent of dysfunction
    • —1. EKG-12 Lead
    • —2. CXR (chest x-ray)
    • —3. Echocardiogram
    • —4. Cardiac Catherization
    • —5. BNP- screening and monitoring blood test for patients at risk for major complications after MI and with CHF .
  5. Treatment for CHF
    • —Directed to the cause of the failure and the symptoms
    • —1. Diuresis- Lasix, Aldactone, hydrochlorothiazide
    • —2. Bedrest
    • 3. Oxygen
  6. Drugs for CHF
    • —Diuretics- create urine
    • —Lasix-furosemide
    • —Aldactone- spironolactone
  7. CAD
    Cornorary Artery Disease
  8. CAD
    • —Heart disease from impaired coronary artery blood flow
    • —75% or more of the coronary vessel  is blocked which creates  ischemia
    • —Cholesterol containing deposits (plaques) on your arteries are usually to blame for coronary artery disease
  9. Types of Angina
    • Classic (exertional) angina- chest pain, sweating, dizziness, anxiety, fatigue, nausea, sob
    • —Variant Angina( Vasospastic, Prinzmetal)- cardiac chest pain, this is caused by vasospasm a narrowing of the coronary arteries 
  10. Angina
    Symptomatic paroxysmal pain or pressure associated with myocardial ischemia pain is substernal, radiates and last no more than 5 minutes.
  11. Unstable Angina
    can be a warning sign that a heart attack is approaching. This occurs when there is not enough blood flow to the heart
  12. Angina Tx
    • —Lifestyle changes- diet, exercise, stress reduction
    • —Medications- vasodilators, calcium channel blockers
    • —Angioplasty with or without stent (PTCA)
    • —Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
  13. AMI
    Acute Myocardial Infarction
  14. AMI Causes
    • —Thrombosis (CAD)
    • Ulceration and hemorrhage of an atherosclerotic plaque
    • Vasospasm
    • Sudden increase in oxygen demand
  15. Transmural
    All 3 layers of heart
  16. Intramural
    Myocardial only
  17. AMI Tx
    • Pain relief- morphine (chest pain associated with an AMI) it relieves pain and decrease anxiety
    • Aspirin
    • Rapid Recannulization(formation of new canals or paths, especially in blood vessels)
    • —Thrombolytics
    • —PTCA
    • —CABG
    • —Vasodilators-Nitroglycerin
  18. HTN
    Essential Hypertension
  19. HTN
    • —High blood pressure- above 140/90 on more than one reading
    • —Affects more than 60 million adults in the U.S.
    • —Two major types:
    • —Essential (primary)
    • —Idiopathic (secondary)
    • Hypertension is classified as a secondary if it’s
    • related to a systemic disease that raises peripheral vascular resistance or cardiac output
  20. Arrhythmias
    irregular heart beats
  21. Stent
    mesh scaffolding to open the coronary artery
  22. Atherosclerosis
    Affects the medium and large sized arteries leading to coronary artery disease (CAD) and strokes
  23. SA Node
    known as the bodies pacemaker located in the wall of the atrium
  24. Pulmonary
    system carries unoxygenated blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and return the blood to the heart for systemic distribution
  25. Systemic
    circulation distributes oxygenated blood from the heart to all parts of the body and returns unoxygenated blood to the heart.
Card Set
Chapter 18