Cardiovascular System

  1. angi/o
  2. ather/o
    fatty paste
  3. coron/o
    circle or crown
  4. pector/o
  5. sphygm/o
  6. thrombo
  7. ven/o
  8. varic/o
    swollen, twisted vein
  9. ventricul/o
    ventricle (belly or pouch)
  10. atrium
    upper right and left chambers of the heart
  11. endocardium
    membrane lining the cavities of the heart
  12. epicardium
    membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
  13. interatrial septum
    partition between right and left atrium
  14. interventricular septum 
    partition between right and left ventricle 
  15. myocardium
    heart muscle
  16. pericardium
    protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers
  17. pariental pericardium 
    outer layer of the heart 
  18. pericardial cavity 
    fluid-filled cavity between pericardial layers 
  19. visceral pericardium 
    layer closest to the heart 
  20. ventricle 
    lower right and left chambers of the heart 
  21. heart valves 
    structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one way flow of blood 
  22. aortic valve 
    heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta 
  23. mitral or bicuspid valve 
    heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle 
  24. pulmonary semilunar valve
    heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  25. tricuspid valve
    valve between the right atrium and right ventricle 
  26. arteries 
    vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles 
  27. aorta 
    large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle 
  28. arterioles
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    small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
  29. capillaries
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    tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  30. venules
    small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
  31. veins 
    vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules 
  32. systemic circulation
    circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
  33. coronary circulation
    circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
  34. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
  35. diastole
    to expand; blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
  36. systole
    to contract; when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
  37. normotension 
    normal blood pressure 
  38. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  39. hypertension
    hight blood pressure
  40. sinoatrial node (SA node)
    the pacemaker; neurological tissue in the right atrium wall responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
  41. atrioventricular node
    neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
  42. bundle of His
    cardiac muscle fibers that conducts the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat.
  43. normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
    regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node
  44. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, loss of elasticity, and hardening of the arterial walls
  45. atherosclerosis
    building of fatty substances within the walls of the artieries
  46. atheromatous plaque
    a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat
  47. thrombus
    a stationary blood clot
  48. embolus
    a thrombus traveling in the blood stream
  49. stenosis
    condition of narrowing of a part
  50. occlusion
    plugging, obstruction or a closing off
  51. ischemia
    to hold back blood
  52. perfusion deficit
    a lack of flow through a blood vessel
  53. infarct
    to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (tissue death)
  54. angina pectoris
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    chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle
  55. aneurysm
    a widening; bulging of the heart wall, the aorta, or an artery
  56. saccular
    a sac like bulge on one side
  57. fusiform
    a spindle-shaped bulge
  58. dissecting
    a split or tear of the vessel wall
  59. claudicatioin
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    to limp; pain in limbs caused by inadequate blood supply
  60. diaphoresis
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    a lot of sweating
  61. heart murmur
    an abnormal sound from the heart 
  62. palpitation
    pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
  63. vegetation
    to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection
  64. arrhythmia
    irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
  65. bradycardia
    slow heart rate
  66. fibrillation
    chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart
  67. flutter
    extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart
  68. heart block
    a delay in the normal flow of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. 
  69. premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
  70. tachycardia
    fast heart rate
  71. arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
    a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture
  72. bacterial endocarditis
    a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  73. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart that occurs when fluid builds up in the space between the heart muscle and the pericardium (outer covering sac of the heart)
  74. cardiomyopathy
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    disease of the heart muscle
  75. congenital anomaly of the heart
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    malformations of the heart present at birth
  76. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    left ventricular failure
    failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood
  77. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood, oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles
  78. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently high blood pressure
  79. essential (primary) hypertension
    high blood pressure attributed to no single cause
  80. secondary hypertension
    high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
  81. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    when the valve between your heart's left atrium and left ventricle doesn't close properly, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  82. myocardial infarction (MI)
    heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow as a result of plugging of a coronary artery
  83. myocarditis
    inflammation of the heart muscles 
  84. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium (sac that encloses the heart)
  85. phlebitis
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    inflammation of a vein
  86. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
  87. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  88. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen, twisted vein with defective valves
  89. deep vein thromboi
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    formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body
  90. auscultation
    listening to sounds within the body
  91. bruit
    noise; an abnormal heart or vessel sound caused by turbulence within
  92. gallop
    an abnormal heart sound that mimics the gallop of a horse
  93. electrocardiogram
    detects and records the electrical activity of the heart
  94. positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart
    imagining technique to produce blood flow images and study the cellular metabolism of the heart
  95. raidiology
    x-ray imaging
  96. angiography
    an x-ray of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
  97. angiogram
    a record obtained by angiography
  98. coronary angiogram
    an x-ray of the blood vessels of the heart
  99. arteriogram
    an x-ray of a particular artery
  100. aorogram
    an x-ray of the aorta
  101. venogram
    an x-ray of a vein
  102. cardiac catheterization
    passing a thin flexible tube (catheter) into the right or left side of the heart. a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions.
  103. sonograph
    sonographic imaging
  104. echocardiography (ECHO)
    recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
  105. stress echocardiogram (stress ECHO)
    an echocardiogram of the heart recorded during exercise
  106. coronary artery bypass
    grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body
  107. anastomosis
    opening; joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
  108. endarterectomy
    incision and coring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage 
  109. valve replacement
    surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial one
  110. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    opens up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate to the heart muscle. 
  111. intravascular stent
    implantation of a device used to open the wall of a vessel 
  112. defbrillation
    termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart
  113. defbrillator
    a device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defbrillation
  114. cardioversion
    using electricity or drugs to bring a fast heart rate back to normal
  115. implantable cardioverter defbrillator (ICD)
    a device that's placed in your chest or abdomen that uses electrical pulses to help control irregular heartbeats 
  116. pacemaker
    a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract
  117. thrombolytic therapy
    dissolution of thrombi using drugs
  118. antianginal
    a drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
  119. antiarrhythmic
    a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
  120. anticoagulant
    a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
  121. antihypertensive
    a drug that lowers blood pressure
  122. beta blockers
    beta-adrenergic blocking agents
    they slow the heart beat, lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts and reduce blood vessel contraction in the heart, brain, and throughout the body
  123. cardiotonic
    a drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart commonly use to treat congestive heart failure
  124. diuretic
    a drug that increases the secretion of urine
  125. hypolipidemic
    a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
  126. statins
    agents that lower cholesterol in the blood
  127. thrombolytic agen
    drugs used to dissolve blood clots
  128. vasoconstrictor
    a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels
  129. vasodilator
    a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow
  130. ASHD
    arteriosclerotic heart disease
  131. AV
  132. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  133. CHG
    congestive heart failure
  134. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  135. HTN
  136. MI
    myocardial infarction
  137. SA
Card Set
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System Vocabulary