Hair Exam

  1. What are the 3 basic elements of hair design?
    • 1.  form
    • 2.  space
    • 3.  lines
  2. What is space? (3)
    • the area inside the form
    •  -volume

    • 3 dimensional
    • -length
    • -width
    • -depth

    Can fill space with curls, waves, straight hair or by combining a few.
  3. What are Lines? (4)
    Lines create form, design and movement of a style

    The eye will follow the lines

    Lines can be stright or curved

    • This includes 4 types of lines
    • -horizontal
    • -vertical
    • -diagonal
    • -curved 
  4. What are 4 types of basic lines?
    • 1.  Horizontal
    • 2.  Vertical
    • 3.  Diagonal
    • 4.  Curved 
  5. What are horizontal lines? (4)
    Lines that are parallel

    Lines maintain a constant distance

    The lines run in the same direction

    They create width in a style because the eye follows the line from center to ends.
  6. What are vertical lines? (2)
    Lines the run straight up and down

    Can make a style look longer/narrower because the eye followes the links up and down
  7. What are diagonal lines? (3)
    Lines that are placed between horizontal/vertical lines

    Best used to minimize/empasize facial features

    May also be used to create interest in a style
  8. What are curved lines?  (3)
    • Soften a design
    • -large or small, full or semi circle

    Can be placed in any direction

    Curved lives repeating in opposite directions create a wave
  9. What are the 5 Principles of Hair Design?
    • 1.  Proportion
    • 2.  Balance
    • 3.  Rythm
    • 4.  Emphasis
    • 5.  Harmony 
  10. What is Proportion?
    The harmonious relationship between parts or things, or the comperative relation of one thing to another.

    Hair must be in proportion to client

    Would not have big hair on small person=BAD
  11. What is Balance? (4)
    Involves harmony and proportion

    Proper degree of HEIGHT AND WIDTH

    Balance can be symmetrical or asymmetrical

    • Symmetrical- design similar on both sides
    • Asymmetrical- features of unequal proportion 
  12. What is Symmetrical Balance?
    A design is similar on boths sides of the face

    -both sides are the same distance from center, same length, same volume when viewed from the front 

    • Sides may be different or same shape 
    • -volume will be the same
  13. What is Asymmetrical Balance? (2)
    • Feature of unequal proportion
    • -right hair design can balance these facial features

    Opposite sides of hairstyle can have different lengths, different colume and can be horizontal or diagonal
  14. What is Rythm? (4)
    Regular, current pattern of movement

    Can be faast or slow moving

    • Fast rythm=tight curls (moves quickly)
    • Slow rythm= larger shapes or longer waves 
  15. What is Emphasis? (4)
    Where the eye turns first before travelling to the rest of the design

    • Area of focus = emphasis 
    • Can have multiple points of emphasis as long as they dec rease in importance/size

    ex: wave patterns, color, change in form, ornamentation 
  16. What is Harmony? (3)
    The orderly and pleasing arrangements of shapes and lines

    •  Holds all elements together
  17. What is the Medulla? (4)
    The inner layer of the hair shaft

    Pigment producing cell

    Contains pockets of hair and water that lend resilience to the hair

    • 3 shades of pigment are:
    • -red
    • -yellow
    • -brown
  18. Steps for Hygiene? (10)
    • 1.  Wash/sanitize hands in front of client
    • 2.  Keep hair tied back and away from face
    • 3.  Keep nails clean and reasonable length
    • 4.  Use clean/sanitized brushes, combs and clips, etc.
    • 5. Clean brushes/clips/etc after each client using alcohol/barbicide
    • 6.  Use new bobbi pins.  Never reuse
    • 7.  Never use teeth to open bobbypins/ hold elastics
    • 8.  Use new elastics each time.  Never reuse
    • 9.  Wash mannequin head every night with shampoo and conditioner
    • 10.  Keep your station/work area tidy at all times
  19. What is the cuticle?  (4)
    The transparent outer layer of the hair shaft

    Scale-like appearance is formed by cells that are pushed flat as they emerge from the hair follicle, creativing a seal

    Locks in moisture

    Protects hair
  20. 3 parts to a Strand of hair?
    • 1.  Cuticle
    • 2.  Cortex
    • 3.  Medulla
  21. What is Form? (3)
    • Overall OUTLINE of all the style
    • -as seen from ALL ANGLES

    The silhouette
  22. What is the Hair Follicle? (3)
    Each strand of hair grows from a follicle

    Where the hair grows from

    The living part

    Where hair starts its journey
  23. What is the Cortex?
    Middle Layer

    Cells that contain pigment (producted in medulla)

    Cells help together by carotene

    Caratene is responsible for hair's elasticity

    No Moister = No elasticity
  24. What is Carotene responsible for?
    Holds the cells together

    Responsible for hairs elasticity
  25. Characteristics of wavy, course hair?
    Can become very wide and look unruly if not shaped properly

    Flat iron or themal waving works best 
  26. Characteristics of Curly, Fine hair?
    when look it will seperate and expose the scalp unless hair is thick and dense
  27. Characteristics of curly, medium hair?
    Creates a wide silhouette

    When left natural will give a soft romantic look

    Use proper products to avoid hair looking frizzy 
  28. Characteristics of curly, coarse hair?
    Needs heavy styling products to weigh hair down

    Can overwhelm any client 
  29. 3 Factors that effect hair type?
    • 1.  Porosity
    • 2.  Elasticity
    • 3.  Ethnic backgroung 
  30. What is Porosity?
    How absorbent hair is to moisture

    Damaged hair = very porous

    Porous hair dries faster therefore use less hair to avoid breakage

  31. What is Elasticity?
    Hair's ability to stretch and return to it's original length without breaking
  32. How does a person's ethnic background affect hair type?
    Helps when deciding which products are necessary to achieve hairstyles

    • African = coarse, curly hair
    • Asian = Straight, coarse hair 
  33. What and where are the sections of the head? (6)
    • 1.  Crown (top of head)
    • 2.  Front center of hairline (where hairline starts)
    • 3.  Center of top of head
    • 4.  Top of ear
    • 5.  Nape area
    • 6.  Base hairline 
  34. What are the 3 shades of pigment produced byb the medulla?
    • 1.  Red
    • 2.  Yellow
    • 3.  Brown 
  35. 2 ways to decide hair type?
    • 1.  Wave pattern
    • 2.  Texture 
  36. What are 4 wave patterns?
    • 1.  Straight
    • 2.  Wavy
    • 3.  Curly
    • 4.  Extremely curly 
  37. 3 Basic hair textures?
    • 1. Fine
    • 2. Medium
    • 3. Coarse 
  38. Characteristics of Fine, Straight hair?
    Hugs head due to lack of body and volume

    Silhouette is small and narrow

    Must choose correct volume products to support hair

    Fragile, must be careful with heat temperatures

    Difficult to hold styles 
  39. Characteristics of Straight, Medium hair?
    Lots of versatility in stying

    Responds really well to blow-drying with different sized brushes and rollers and hot tools

    Nice amount of movement 
  40. Characteristic of Straight, Coarse hair? (5)
    Hard to curl

    Carries more volume than other types of hair

    Side silhouette

    Responds well to thermal styling

    • Flat brush works well
    • Round brush = poofy
  41. Characteristics of Wavy, fine hair? (2)
    Responds well to blow-drying

    Can be fragile so must be careful with it
  42. Characteristics of Wavy, Medium hair? (4)
    Most versatility in styling

    • Most hairstyles work on this type  
    • (ex: diffuse to look curly or straightened by blow drying)


    Good resuts with brushes, curling irons, rollers, etc. 
Card Set
Hair Exam
Covers hygiene, hair structure, Elements, Philosoohy and Principles of design. Hair types and head sections,