Department stores. Describes each department. Uses kids departments to get parents to buy things. Use of advertising Sales in the front of the store to show a crowd. Had to rearrange the store the night before the sale
- Emile Zola "Ladies Paradise" 1883
- Emerging consumerism. Use of advertising and various strategies to increase sales. This was the first department store and very profitable. New rhythm and tempo of mass culture
Instead of hypnosis worked with patients in their normal state. Pushing patients to remember more than they say. Forgotten memories were not lost. Repression. Resistance of memories. Repression due to an internal struggle. Impulse vs. values. Repressed impulses remain in the unconscious.
- Sigmund Freud "Five Lectures on Psychoanalysis" 1895?
- Freud was the first scientist of psychoanalysis, a discipline that tries to understand the unconscious as well as to explain the role of suppressed desires and how they affect peoples actions and dysfunctions. Tremendous impact on psychology and the 20th century
Non-Violence is superior to violence. Forgivness is more manly than punishment. Strength comes from indomitable will. one hundred thousand Englishmen need not frighten three hundred million Indians. Try non violence. Economic war is no better than actual war.
- Mahatma Gandhi "The Essential Writings" Date Unknown Early 1900s
- Gandhi was an essential part of India's quest for independence. He trained as a lawyer in Britain then spent time experiencing the racism of the apartheid of south africa. in 1913 he became active in the Indian National Congress and adopted a strategy of non violent protest.
Training as a nurse. Hours and atmosphere. Had to cook some. Saw American soldiers and there was much excitement. Laments the death of Edward. The war was over a new age was beginning but the dead were dead and would never return.
- Vera Brittain "Testament of Youth" 1933
- Worked as a nurse during WWI. Attended school despite the urgings of her parents. Demonstrates the various ways in which the lives of ordinary individuals were disrupted and transformed during the course of the war. He fiance, brother, and friends were killed during the war.
Battle of Somme. Artillery fire intensity. Where you fall, there you lie. No one can help you" Climbing over heaps of debris. Turned towns to desolation. Scent of dead bodies. Shells. Devastation everywhere. Scenes of devastation cased by man
- Ernst Junger "The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front 1929
- Description of a German's soldiers experience during the futile but deadly battle of Somme. Brutal trench warfare
Harput city of 30,000. Accusation of Armenians having bombs but it was suspected they were planted there. Many Armenians tortured. Armenians arrested and deported. Rein of terror. People had to abandon everything.
- Leslie A. Davis "Report of Leslie A. Davis, American Consul, Formerly of Harput, Turkey, on the Work of the American Consulate at Harput Turkey, since the Beginning of the Present War" 1915-1917
- Davis was the only neutral representative that was there so he described it. Deportation and genocide of Armenians. Deportation. Violent massacres few survived. 2/3 of deported Armenians killed. On of the first genocides.
Key words: Duma. Soviet of workers. Soldiers did not have to salute outside of service or address officers with things like Your Excellency. Soldiers should send one representative to the Soviet Workers Deputy
- Petrograd Soviet "Order Number One, 1 March 1917
- " Soldiers were worried they would be punished for their acts of disobedience. This act replaced the authority of the army's officer corps with a system of soldiers committee that would operate democratically.
Key phrase: members of the league. Restrictions on Germany. End of aggression. Defeated nations lose their territories.
- Versailles Treaty 1919
- Significance is self explanatory
Dadaism. Disgust with the current system. Showing the people death. Death was prevalent in WWII. Spontaneity. Dada is a state of mind. It is applicable to everything but it is nothing.
- Tristan Tzara "Seven Dada Manifestos and Lampisteries" 1916-22
- Dada movement began during World War One. Against classic tradition. an early 20th-century international movement in art, literature, music, and film, repudiating and mocking artistic and social conventions and emphasizing the illogical and absurd. Tzara was present at the creation of the Dada movement.
Fascism. Fascism is an individual thing. It is the opposite of Socialism. The importance of The State. It is security and is important for the future. Fascism combats democracy. The Fascist State is unique and original. It is not reactionary but revolutionary. Fascism penetrates all parts of society. Authority of the state.
- Benito Mussolini "Born of a Need for Action" 1933.
- The emergence of Fascism.
Unemployment. Overestimated figures of unemployment. Everywhere it is poorer. Everyone is affected by unemployment. Affected men more then women. Dole is a key word. Consumption of cheap luxuries have gone up.
- George Orwell "the road to wigan pier" 1937
- Travel trough Europe and wrote a report on workers conditions. His perceptions were shaped by his rejection of the prejudices of the lower middle class which he was from. How the great depression had affected Europe
Even though there is a five year plan the workers are still poor. Torture. Collectives. Removal of books. Collectivism of farms. Problems with collectivization. Censorship
- Daily Life Under Stalin 1930-32
- Stalin was a harsh brutal ruler of Soviet Russia. Terror.
Auschwitz. Haftling (Prisoner) Number tattooed on. Things people learned in the camps. Training helps survive. Hard for young to survive. Camp Heirachy. Do what it takes to survive.
- Primo Levi "Survial in Auschwitz" 1947
- Significance: Insight to concentration camps.