Study Guide

  1. Define memory and the three fundamental processes involved.
    Memory is the mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. The three fundamental processes involved are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding is the process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system. Storage is the process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time. Retrieval is the process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
  2. Understand the Stage Model of Memory, including all three distinct stages, and be able to apply to an example.
    The stage model is based on the idea that information is transferred from one memory stage to another. Sensory memory, to short-term memory, then to long-term memory.
  3. .Understand techniques used to improve short-term and long-term memory.
  4. Understand the 3 categories of information in long-term memory and be able to apply to an example.
  5. Define the serial position effect.
    The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle.
  6. Understand Encoding Specificity Principles and be able to apply to an example.
    The environmental cues in a particular context can become encoded as part of the unique memories you form while in that context. These same environmental cues can act as retrieval cues to help you access the memories formed in that context. Same goes for mood congruence, when you’re happy, you tend to remember happy memories. When you’re sad you remember unpleasant losses etc.., .
  7. What are the factors that affect the forming of false memories?
    1st repeatedly imagining an event makes the event seem increasingly familiar. People misinterpret the sense of familiarity as an indication that the event really happened. 2nd coupled with the sense of increased familiarity, people experience source confusion. That is, subtle confusion can occur as to whether a retrieved “memory” has a real event or an imagined event as its source. Over time people may come misattribute their memory of imagining the pseudoevent as being a memory of the actual occurrence of the event. 3rd the more vivid and detailed the imaginative experience, the more likely it is that people will confuse the imagined event with a real occurrence. Vivid sensory aand perceptual details can make the imagined events “feel” more like “real” events.
  8. Why do people forget?
    Several factors that contribute to forgetting are encoding failure, decay, interference, and motivated forgetting. Encoding failure is the inability to recall specific information because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in long-term memory.
  9. Understand the two types of amnesia and be able to apply to an example.
    Retrograde amnesia-loss of memory, especially for episodic information; backward-acting amnesia. Retrograde means “backward moving” people who have retrograde amnesia are unable to remember some or all of their past, especially episodic memories for recent events. Usually results due to a head injury.Anterograde amnesia- loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia. Anterograde means “forward moving”.
  10. Define cognition and thinking.
    Cognition- the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge.Thinking- the manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw interferences and conclusions.
  11. Understand the four problem solving strategies including benefits and limitations.
    Trial and error- a problem solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work. Algorithm- a problem solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method that inevitably produces the correct solution. Heuristic- a problem solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions. Insight- the sudden realization of how a problem can be resolved. & Intuition- coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved.
  12. Understand the three decision-making strategies.
    Single-featured model, to simplify a choice among many alternatives, you base your decision on a single feature.Additive model, generate a list of factors most important to you, then. Rate each alternative on each factor using arbitrary an scale, such as -5 to +5. The factor with the strongest appeal goes up, & vice versa. Finally, you add up the ratings for each alternative.Elimination by Aspects model, evaluate all the alternatives one characteristic at a time, typically starting with the feature you consider most important.
  13. Define language and the characteristics of language.
    Language-a system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements.
Card Set
Study Guide