A communication path over a medium used to transport information from a sender to a receiver.
Multiple channels can be multiplexed over a single cable.
TCP process of taking a large chunk of data and breaking it into small-enough pieces to fit within a TCP segment w/o breaking any rules about the max amount of data allowed in each segment.
Process where multiple digital data streams are combined into one signal.
Ethernet Layer 2 device
Requires electrical signal in one port, interprets the bits, and makes a filtering or forwarding decision about the frame.
- Forwards a regenerated signal.
- Has many ports (RJ-45)
A device such as a desktop or mobile device that is used by an end user.
Network device that has an IPv4 address assigned to it to communicate over a network.
A network device that accesses a service on another computer remotely by accessing the network
IPv4 address of a network host - Network Layer Address
Device that connects end devices to the network or interconnects different networks.
Data link layer address
Ex: MAC address.
To change energy levels transmitted over some networking medium to transmit bits over that medium.
Network created for devices located in a limited geographic area, through which the company owning the LAN has the right to run cables.
Internet Service Provider
Company that helps create the internet by providing connectivity to enterprises and individuals,
as well as interconnecting to other ISPs to create connectivity to all other ISPs.
Written specification that defines what tasks a service or device should perform.
Defines messages (headers), rules, process by which the messages are used to achieve some stated purpose.
Delineation of networking protocols and standards into different categories, called layers, along with definitions of which sets of standards and protocols need to be implemented to create products that can be used to create a working network.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
International, nonprofit organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity.
Maintains standards defining many LAN protocols.
Internet Engineering Task Force
Standards body responsible for the development and approval of TCP/IP standards.
Model that consists of various layers that enable the development and explanation of technology to be done on a modular basis.
Allows interoperability among different technologies among the different layers.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Network model defined by the IETF that has been implemented on most computers and network devices in the world.
Process in which a device adds networking headers and trailers to data from an application for the eventual transmission of the data over the medium.
Process in which the end-device receives data from a transmission and examines the headers and trailers at each stack layer
Protocol Data Unit
Generic term from OSI that refers to the data, headers, and trailers about which a particular networking layer is concerned.
1. Collision domain that is a section of a LAN that is bound by bridges, routers, or switches.
2. LAN w/ bus topology it is a continuous electrical circuit that is often connected w/ repeaters.
3. W/ TCP it serves as a verb referring to the work TCP does to accept a large piece of data from an end device breaking it into smaller pieces. OR as a noun it refers to one of those smaller pieces of data.
Layer 2 PDU that has been encoded by a data link layer protocol for digital transmission.
- Ethernet frames
- PPP frames
Open System Interconnection
International standardization program created by ISO and ITU-T to develop standards for data networking that facilitate multivendor equipment interoperability.
International Organization for Standardization
International standards body that defines many networking standards. Also, the standards body that created the OSI model.
multiple meanings in networking
On a Ethernet hub, switch = interface (physical connector in the device you plug the cable into)