Chapter 5

  1. Cardiovascular system
    consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood (cardi/o means heart, vascul means blood vessels, and -ar means pertaining to)
  2. Heart
    a hollow, muscular organ located between the lungs. it's very effective pump that furnishes the power to maintain the blood flow needed throughout the entire body.
  3. Pericardium
    (aka pericardial sac) double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart (peri- means surrounding, cardi means heart, and -um is a singular noun ending)
  4. Layers of the pericardium
    • 1. parietal pericardium is the tough outer layer that forms the fibrous sac that surrounds and protects the heart
    • 2. visceral pericardium is the inner layer of the pericaridum
    • 3. pericardial fluid found between these two layers, where it acts as a lubricant to prevent friction when the heart beats
  5. Walls of the Heart:

    the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium (epi- means upon, cardi means heart, and -um is a singular noun ending)
  6. Walls of the Heart:

    (aka myocardial muscle) is the middle and thickest of the heart's three layers and consists of specialized cardiac muscle tissue (my/o means muscle, cardi means heart, and -um is a singular noun ending)
  7. Walls of the Heart:

    consists of epithelial tissue, is the inner lining of the heart (endo- mean within, cardi means heart, and -um is a singular noun ending)
  8. Coronary arteries
    supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium
  9. Chambers of the heart:

    are the two upper chambers of the heart. They're the receiving chambers and all blood vessels coming into the heart enter here
  10. Chambers of the heart:

    are the two lower chambers of the heart. They're the pumping chambers and all blood vessles leaving the heart emerges from the ventricles. The walls of the ventricles are thicker than the atria because they must pump blood throughout the body
  11. Valves of the Heart:

    Tricuspid Valve
    controls the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle
  12. Valves of the Heart:

    Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
    located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
  13. Valves of the Heart:

    Mitral Valve (aka Biscuspid Valve)
    located between the left atrium and left ventricle
  14. Valves of the Heart:

    Aortic Semilunar Valve
    located between the left atrium and aorta
  15. Describe the flow of blood through the heart
    • 1. Right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from all the tissues, except the lungs, through the superior and inferior vena cavae. Blood flows out the the right atrium through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
    • 2.The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary artery which carries it to the lungs
    • 3. The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins. The blood flows out of the left atrium through the mitral valve and into the left ventricle
    • 4. The left ventricle receive the oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium. Blood flows out of the left ventricle through the aortic semilunar valve and into the aorta which carries it to all parts of the body except the lungs
    • 5. Oxygen-poor blood is returned by the vena cave to the right atrium and the cycle continues
  16. Pulmonary Circulation
    the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs
  17. Pulmonary arteries
    carries deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs. this is the only place in the body where deoxygenated blood is carried by arteries instead of veins
  18. Pulmonary veins
    carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium of the heart. this is the only place in the body where veins carry oxygenated blood.
  19. Systemic Circulation
    includes all flow of the blood to all parts of the body except the lungs
  20. The Heartbeat:

    Sinoartrial node (SA node)
    located in the psoterior wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.
  21. The Heartbeat:

    Functions of the SA node:
    • 1. establishes the basic rhythm and the rate of the heartbeat. For this reason it is known as the natural pacemaker of the heart.
    • 2. electricla impulses from the SA node start each wave of muscle contraction in the heart.
    • 3. the impulses in the right atrium spreads over the muscles of both atria, causing them to contract simultaneoulsy. This contraction forces blood into the ventricles
  22. The Heartbeat:

    Atrioventricular node (AV node)
    receives the impulses from the AV node. located on the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum. from here is transmits the electrical impulses to the bundle of HIS
  23. The Heartbeat:

    The Bundle of HIS
    a group of fibers located within the interventricular septum. These fibers carry an electrical impulse to ensure the sequence of the heart contractions. These electrical impulses travel onward to the right and left ventricles and the Purkinje fibers
  24. The Heartbeat:

    Purkinje Fibers
    specialized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricles. These fibers relay the electrical impulses to the cells of the ventricles to contract. This contraction of the ventricles forces blood out of the heart and into tha aorta and pulmonary arteries
  25. Electrical Waves:

    P Wave
    due to the stimulation (contraction) of the atria
  26. Electrical Waves:

    QRS Complex
    shows the stimulation (contraction) of the ventricles. The atria relaxes as the ventricles contract
  27. Electrical Waves:

    T Wave
    is the recovery(relaxation) of the ventricles
  28. Blood Vessels:

    There are 3 major types of blood vessels. What are they?
    • 1. arteries
    • 2. capillaries
    • 3. veins
  29. Arteries
    large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body. the walls are composed of three layers which makes them muscular and more elastic so they can expand and contract with the pumping beat of the heart.
  30. Arteries:

    the largest blood vessel in the body, is the main trunk of the arterial system and begins from the left ventricle of the heart
  31. Arteries:

    Carotid arteries
    major arteries that carry blood upward to the head
  32. Arteries:

    Types of carotid arteries
    • 1. common carotid is located on each side of the neck and divides into the
    • 2. internal carotid which brings oxygenated blood to the brain
    • 3. external carotid brings blood to the face
  33. Arteries:

    the smaller, thinner branches of the arteries that carry blood to the capillaries
  34. Veins
    form a low-pressure collecting system to return deoxygenated blood to the heart. the walls are thinner and less elastic than arteries. veins have valves that enable blood to flow only toward the heart and prevent it from following away from the heart
  35. Veins:

    are smallest veins that joing to form the larger veins
  36. Veins:

    Vena Cavae
    are the two largest veins in the body. these are the veins that return blood into the heart.
  37. Veins:

    Superior Vena Cava
    transports blood from the upper portion of the body to the heart
  38. Veins:

    Inferior Vena Cava
    transports blood from the lower portion of the body to the heart
  39. Capillaries
    are only one epithelial cell in thickness, are the smallest blood vessels in the body. they form networks of expanded vascular beds that have the important role of delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells of tissues
  40. Capillaries:

    Flow of blood to capillaries
    • 1. arterioles deliver blood to the capillaries. here the rate of flow of arterial blood slows as it enters one end of the bed
    • 2.capillaies further slow the flow of blood to allow plasma to flow into the tissues for exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials surrounding the cells
    • 3. 90% of the fluid, which is now deoxygenated, leaves the opposite end of the  capillary bed through the venules, and it continues to flow as venous blood that increases in speed as it begins to return its journey to the heart. the remaining 10% of this fluid is left behind in the tissues and becomes lymph
  41. Pulse
    the rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the contraction of the heart
  42. Blood pressure
    the measurement of the amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries
  43. Systolic pressure
    occurs when the ventricle contract, is the highest pressure against the walls of an artery
  44. Diastolic pressure
    occurs when the ventricles are relaxed, is the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery
  45. Blood
    the fluid tissue in the body. compsed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements
  46. Plasma
    straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products. 91% water. the remaining 9% consist mainly of proteins including clotting proteins
  47. Fibrinogen and prothrombin
    are the clotting proteins found in plasma. they have an important role in clot formation to control bleeding
  48. Serum
    plasma fluid after the blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed
  49. Erythrocytes
    (aka red blood cells) are mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow (erythr/o means red and -cytes means cell.) primary role of the celss is to transport oxygen to the tissues by the hemoglobin
  50. Leukocytes
    (aka white blood cells) are involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances (leuk/o means white and -cyte means cell.)
  51. What are the types of leukocytes?
    • 1. Neutrophils
    • 2. Basophils
    • 3. Eosinophils
    • 4. Lymphocytes
    • 5. Monocytes
  52. Types of Leukocytes:

    are the most common. utilizes phagocytosis to defend against pathogens
  53. Types of Leukocytes:

    are the least common. responsible for the symptoms of allergies
  54. Types of Leukocytes:

    migrate throughout the body. destroys parastic organisms abd play a major role in allergic reactions
  55. Types of Leukocytes:

    identify foreign substances and germs in the body and produce antibodies that specially target them (lymph/o means lymph and -cyte means cell) 
  56. Types of Leukocytes:

    through phagocytosis they provide immunological defended against many infectious organisms
  57. Thrombocytes
    (aka platelets) are the smalles formed elements of the blood (thromb/o means clot and -cyte means cell)
  58. Role of thrombocytes:
    • 1. when a blood vessel is damaged, the thrombocytes are activated and become sticky
    • 2. this action causes the thrombocytes to clump together to form a clot that stops the bleeding
  59. Blood types
    classified according to the presence or absence or certain antigens
  60. Antigen
    any substance that the body regards as foreign
  61. What are the major blood types?
    • 1. A
    • 2. AB
    • 3. B
    • 4. O
  62. Rh factor
    the presence, or absence og the Rh antigen on red blood cells.
  63. Blood gases
    gases that are normally dissolved in teh liquid portion of blood (O, CO2, and N)
  64. Cardiologist
    a physician who specilaizes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, disease, and disorders of the heart (card/i means heart and -ologist means specialist)
  65. Hematologist
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissue (hemat means blood and -ologist means specialist)
  66. Vascular Surgeon
    a physician who specializes in the disgnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disorders og the blood vessels
  67. Congential heart defects
    structural abnormalities caused by failure of the heart to devlop normally before birth
  68. Coronary artery disease
    atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle. this creates an insufficient supply of oxygen that can cause angia, myocardial infarction, or death
  69. Atherosclerosis
     is hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries (ather/o means plaque or fatty substance and -sclerosis means abnormal hardening)
  70. Plaque
    found within the lumen of the artery, is a fatty deposit. can protrude outward into the lumen of the vessel or protrude inward onto the wall.
  71. Atheroma
    a characteristic of atherosclerosis, is deposit of plaque on or within the aterial wall (ather means plaque and -oma means tumor)
  72. Ischemic heart disease
    a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart. these diseases are usually associated with corornary artery disease
  73. Ischemia
    a condition in which there's an insufficient oxygen supply due to a restricted blood flow by to a part of the body (isch means hold back and -emia means blood.)
  74. Angia
    (aka angia pectoris) is a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium. these episodes are due to the ischemia of the heart muscle
  75. Myocardial infarction
    (aka heart attack) is the occlusion of one or more corornary arteries caused by plaque buildup.
  76. Occlusion
    means total blockage
  77. Heart failure
    (aka congestive heart failure) occurs most commonly in the elderly. this is a chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood that is receives. the decreased pumping action causes congestion.
  78. Cardiomegaly
    abnormal enlargement of the heart that is frequently associated with heart failure when the heart enlarges in an effort to compensate for the loss of its pumping ability (cardi/o means heart and -megaly means abnormal enlargement)
  79. Carditis
    inflammation of the heart (card means heart and -itis means inflammation)
  80. Endocarditis
    inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (endo- means within, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation)
  81. Bacterial endocarditis
    inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. one cause of this condition bleeding during a dental surgery because it allows bacteria from the mouth to enter the bloodstream
  82. Myocarditis
    inflammation of the myocardium (my/o means muscle, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation) this uncommon condition can develop as a complication of a viral infection
  83. Pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac (peri-means surrounding, card means heart, and -itis means inflammation) this fluid restricts the beating of the heatr and reduces the ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the body
  84. Cardiomyopathy
    all disease of the heart muscle muscle (cardi/o means heart, my/o means muscle, and -pathy means disease)
  85. Heart murmur
    abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels. heart murmurs are most often defective heart valves
  86. Valvulitis
     inflammation of a heart valve (valvul mean valve and -itis means inflammation)
Card Set
Chapter 5
Cardiovascular System