Human Geography Ch.8

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  1. Subsistence agriculture
     is a system in which agriculturalists consume most of what they produce.
  2. shifting cultivation-
    a form of agriculture usually found in tropical forests, farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields they cultivate
  3. intensive small-scale-
    a practice involving the effective and efficient use of a small parcel of land to maximize crop yield; a considerable expenditure of human labor and application of fertilizer are usually involved.
  4. pastoralism
    involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs for food, shelter, and clothing
  5. crop rotation
     the act rotating crops in a certain area in order to let the soil restore naturally
  6. transhumance
     the movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter, and cooler, highland areas in the summer
  7. agricultural revolutions
    development of seed agriculture and the use of the plow and draft animals. domestication of crops such as wheat and rice and animals such as sheep and goats, replaced hunting and gathering as a way of living and sustaining life.
  8. agricultural revolutions:second-
     dramatic improvements in outputs, such as crop and livestock yields; innovations such as the improved yoke for oxen and the replacement of the ox with the horse; and new inputs to agricultural production, such as fertilizers and field draining systems. concluded with the industrial revolution
  9. agricultural revolutions: third
     began late 19th century. mechanization, chemical farming with synthetic fertilizers, and globally widespread food manufacturing.
  10. Green Revolution
     focus was on the development of seed varieties that would produce higher yields than those traditionally used in the target areas.
  11. Biorevolution-
     involves the genetic engineering of plants and animals and has the potential to outstrip the productivity increases of the green revolution.
  12. industrial agriculture
    changes in rural labor activities as machines replace and/or enhance human labor; the introduction of innovative inputs-fertilizers and other agrochemicals, hybrid seeds, and biotechnologies-to supplement, alter, or replace biological outputs; and the development of industrial substitues for agricultural products.
  13. criticisms of Green Revolution
     ecosystem pollution and use of irrigation has created salt buildup in soils and water scarcity.
  14. criticisms of genetically modified food: 
    cloned planes are more susceptible to disease than natural ones, may have unexpected irreversible effects on human health and the environment and result in maturation problems in children or in mutant plant and animal species
  15. Blue Revolution and comparison with Green Revolution
     introduction of larger, more sophisticated vessels into wild fisheries that in turn expanded aquaculture in the late twentieth century. the blue and green revolution have increased food production in many places, but on the other they have engendered conflict over how the new practices redistribute power and wealth.  PAGE 278 for a full table
  16. food regime
     a specific set of links that exist between food production and consumption. these emerge during key historical periods, when different cultural, political, and economic forces are in operation.
  17. food security
     for a person, a household, or even a country is assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives
  18. food sovereignty
    the right of peoples, communities, and countries to define their own agricultural, labor, fishing, food, and land policies that are ecologically, socially, economically, and culturally appropriate to their unique circumstances.
  19. fast food
    edibles that can be prepared and served very quickly in packaged form in a restaurant-actually preceded the name for it.
  20. alternative agriculture: organic- 
    describes farming or animal husbandry that occurs without the use of commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, or growth hormones.
  21. alternative agriculture: local-
    usually also organically grown and its designation as local means that it is produced within a fairly limited distance from where it is consumed
  22. urban agriculture-
     the establishment or performance of agricultural practices in or near an urban or city-like setting
  23. slow food
    an attempt to resist fast food by preserving the cultural cuisine and the associated food and farming of an ecoregion.
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Human Geography Ch.8
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