pharma test 3 ch 13.txt

  1. How do antibiotics work (four mechanisms)?
    Inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis; disrupt or alter bacterial cell membrance permeability; inhibit baterial protein synthesis (interrupt protein synthesis or form defective proteins); inhibit ability of bacteria to synthesize essential metabolites
  2. Bacteriostatic
    Stops bacterial growth but does not kill the bacteria - ex. Sulfanomides
  3. Bacteriocidal
    Kills bacteria by disrupting the bacterial cell wall - ex. penicillin
  4. Common side effects to antibiotics
    Rash, fever, itchy hives (urticuria with pruritis), chill, redness (general erythema), anaphylaxis (circulatory collapse, airway narrowing)
  5. Four types of penicillin
    Basic (natural), penicillinase-resistant, broad spectrum, extended spectrum
  6. Beta-lactam ring is common for both...
    • penicillins and cephalosporins
    • breakage causes loss of effectiveness for both
  7. Beta-lactamase inhibitors prevents.....
    loss of antibiotic activity
  8. Hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis) is an adverse effect....
    shared by penicillins and cephalosporins
  9. Four generations of cephalosporins
    • First generation - effective against gram-positive bacteria; least resistant to beta-lactamase
    • Second generation - more resistant to beta-lactamase; greater gram-negative activity than gram-positive
    • Third generation - more active against gram-negative; resistant to beta-lactamase producing bacteria
    • Fourth generation - similar to third generation but more resistant to beta-lactamase bacteria; many can cross brain-blood barrier; effective in malaria
  10. When are lincosamides bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal
    Bacteriostatic at normal dose and bacteriocidal at large doses
  11. So, tell me about vancomycin...
    It's a glycopeptide, it's bacteriocidal, it was once considered the antibiotic of last resort and adverse effects include ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
  12. Aminoglycosides are...
    bacteriocidal; used in combination with penicillins, cephalosporins or vancomycins; side effects include nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hypersensitivity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular weakness
  13. Tetracyclines are...
    the first broad-spectrum antibiotic; bacteriostatic by inhibiting protein synthesis; contraindicated in pregnant women, breast-feeding women and children under 8 (leads to permanently mottled and discolored teeth and impaired bone development); useful for treating Lyme Disease
  14. Chloramphenicol is...
    broad-spectrum antibiotic; inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic at normal dose and bacteriocidal at larger doses; contraindictated in pregnant women and breast-feeding women (neonates may develop gray syndrome)
  15. Fluoroquinolones are...
    synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotics; affect bacterial growth by inhibiting DNA replication
  16. Sulfanomides are...
    synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotics; affect bacterial growth by inhibiting DNA replication
  17. Tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis; kills more people than any other infectious disease; 1 in 3 people infected with dormant TB worldwide; bacteria become active as a result of anything that reduces a person's immunity (HIV, advancing age, medical condition); there is a multi-drug resistant TB
  18. What are the first-line drugs for TB?
    Isoniazid, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Streptomycin
  19. What are the second-line drugs for TB?
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Capreomycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Rifabutin
Card Set
pharma test 3 ch 13.txt
pharma test 3 from 13-25