Chapter 4

  1. Muscle Fibers
    long, slender cells that make up muscles.
  2. Fascia
    sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles ot groups of muscles
  3. Myofascial
    pertaining to muscle tissue ans fascia (my/o means muscle, fasci means fascia, and -al means pertaining to)
  4. Tendon
    narrow ban of nonelasticm dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
  5. Skeletal muscle
    attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible. They are voluntary and striated
  6. Smooth muscle
    (aka visceral muscle) located in the walls of internal prgans such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from the glands. Their function is to move and control the flow of fluids through these structures. They are involuntary and unstriated.
  7. Myocardial muscle
    (aka myocardium or cardiac muscle) form th muscular walls of the heart (my/o means muscle, cadri meand hearts, and -al means pertaining to.) These muscles are striated
  8. Muscle innervation
    the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve.
  9. Neuromuscular
    pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle (neur/o means nerve, muscul means muscle, and -ar means pertaining to)
  10. Contraction
    the tightening of muscle. As the muscle contracts,it becomes shorter and thicker causing teh belly of the muscle to enlarge
  11. Relaxtion
    occurs when a muscle returns to tis original form. as the muscle relaxes it becomes longer and thinner. the belly of the muscle is no longer enlarged
  12. Abduction
    moves away from hte midline.
  13. Adduction
    moves toward the midline
  14. Flexion
    decreases an angle, as in bending the joint
  15. Extension
    increase an angle at a joint, as in straightening a joint
  16. Elevation
    raises a body part
  17. Depression
    lowers a body part
  18. Rotation
    turns a bone on its own axis
  19. Circumduction
    is the circular movement at the far end of a limb
  20. Supination
    turns the palm of the hand upward or forward
  21. Pronation
    turns the palm of the hand downward or backward
  22. Dorsiflexion
    bends the foot upward at the ankle
  23. Plantar flexion
    bends the foot downward at the ankle
  24. Origin
    the less movable attachment, the place where the muscle begins.
  25. Insertion
    the more movable attachment, the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon
  26. Oblique
    slanted or at an angle
  27. Rectus
    straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body
  28. Sphincter
    ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
  29. Transverse
    crosswise direction
  30. Biceps brachii
    (aka biceps) formed from two divisions (bi- means two and -ceps means head)
  31. Triceps brachii
    (aka triceps) formed from three divisions (tri- means three and -ceps means head)
  32. Gluteus maximus
    largest muscle of the buttocks
  33. Deltoid muscle
    shaped like an inverted triangle or the Greek letter delta
  34. Hamstring group
    located at the back of the upper leg and their primary functiona are knee flexion and hip extension. consist of three separate muscles:

    • 1. biceps femoris
    • 2. semitendinosus
    • 3. semimembranosus
  35. Exercise physiologist
    specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to devlop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
  36. neurologist
    a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function
  37. physiatrist
    physician who specializes in physical medicine ad rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function
  38. Rheumatologist
    physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues
  39. Sports medicine physician
    specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints and muscles
  40. Fasciitis (fascitis)
    inflammation of a fascia (fasci means fascia and -itis means inflammation)
  41. Fibromyalgia syndrome
    debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and/or specific muscle joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms (fibr/o means fibrous connective tissue, my means muscle, and -algia means pain)
  42. Tenodynia
    (aka tenalgia) is pain the tendon (ten/o means tendon and -dynia means pain)
  43. Tendinitis
    (aka tendonitis, tenonitis, and tenontitis)inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint (tendon means tendon and -itis means inflammation)
  44. Chronic fatigue syndrome
    disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems. Characterized by profound fatigue that isn't improved by bed rest and may be made worse by physical or mental activity
  45. Adhesion
    a band of fibrous tissue that hold structures together abnormall. Can form in muscles, or in internal organsm as a result of an injury or surgery
  46. Atrophy
    weakness or wearing away of body tissue and structures. Can be pathological or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time
  47. Myalgia
    (aka myodynia) tenderness or pain in the muscles (my means muscle and -algia means pain)
  48. Myocele
    the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it (my/o means muscle and -cele means a hernia)
  49. Myolysis
    degeneration of muscle tissue (my/o means muscle, -lysis means destruction or breaking down in disease)
  50. Myomalacia
    abnormal softening of muscle tissue (my/o means muscle and -malacia means abnormal softening)
  51. Myorrhexis
    the rupture or tearing of a muscle (my/o means muscle and -rrhexis means rupture)
  52. Polymyositis
    a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body (poly- means many, myos means muscle, -itis means inflammation)
  53. Sarcopenia
    loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging (sarc/o means flesh and -penia means deficiency)
  54. Muscle tone
    (aka tonus) is the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible
  55. Atonic
     lacking normal muscle tone or strength (a- means without, ton means tone, and -ic means pertaining to)
  56. Dystonia
    condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement (dys- means bad, ton means tone, and -ia means condition)
  57. Hypertonia
    condition of excessivetone of the skeletal muscles (hyper- means excessive, ton means tone, and -ia means condition)
  58. Hypotonia
    condition in which there is diminished tone of skeletal muscles (hypo- means deficient, ton means tone, and -ia means condition)
  59. Myotonia
    a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction (my/o means muscle, ton means tone, and -ia means condition)
  60. Ataxia
    the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement (a- means without, tax means coordination, and -ia means condition) These movements are often shaky and unsteady and are most frequently caused by abnormal activity in the cerebellum
  61. Dystaxia
    (aka partial ataxia) a mild form of ataxia (dys- means bad, tax means coordination, and -ia means condition)
  62. Contracture
    the permanent tightening of fascia, musclesm tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissue. The most common causes of contractures are scarring or the lack of use due to immobilization or inactivity.
  63. Intermittent claudication
    pain in the leg muscles that occur during exercise and is relieved by rest
  64. Spasm
    sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles
  65. Cramp
    localized muscle spasm for its cause, such as a heat cramp or a writer's cramp
  66. Spasmodic torticollis
    (aka wryneck) is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
  67. Bradykinesia
    extreme slowness in movement (brady- means slow, kines means movement, -ia means condition) This is one of the conditions for Parkinson's disease
  68. Dyskinesia
    the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as a tic or spasm (dys- means bad, kines means movement, and -ia means condition)
  69. Hyperkinesia
    (aka hyperactivity) abnormal increased muscle function or activity (hyper- means excessive, kines means movement, and -ia means condition)
  70. Hypokinesia
    abnormal decreased muscle function or activity (hypo- means deficient, kines means movement, and -ia means condition)
  71. Myoclonus
    sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or a group of muscles (my/o means muscle, clon means violent action, and -us is a singular noun ending)
  72. Nocturnal myoclonus
    jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
  73. Singultus
    (aka hiccups) myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristics hiccup sound with each spasm
  74. Myasthenis gravis
    chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles (my means muscle and -asthenia means weakness or lack od strength)
  75. Muscular dystrophy
    30 gentic diseases that are characterized by progessive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system.
  76. Duchenne muscular dystropy
    the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Affects primarily boys with the onset between the ages of 3-5 years old. The disorder progresses rapidly so that most of these boys are unable to walk by age 12 and later need a respirator to breathe
  77. Becker muscular dystrophy
    similar but less severe than Duchenne muscular dustrophy
  78. Repetitive stress disorders
    (aka repetitive motion disorders) a varietyof muscular conditions that reult from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports. These symptoms can be caused by the frequently repeated motions involve muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints
  79. Compartment syndrome
    the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles. this syndrome can be caused by trauma, tight bandages or casts, or by repetitive activites such as running
  80. Overuse injuries
    minor tissue injuries that haven't been given time to heal. Such injuries can be caused by spending hours at the computer keyboard or by lenghty sports training sessions.
  81. Overuse tendinitis
    (aka overuse tendinosis) inflammation of tendons caused by excessive ot unusal use of a joint (tendin- means tendon and -itis means inflammation)
  82. Stress fracture
    are also overuse injuries
  83. Myofacial pain syndrome
    chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body. This condition, which is caused by the development of trigger points, produces local and referred muscle pain.
  84. Trigger points
    tender areas that most commonly develop where the fascia comes into contact with a muscle.
  85. Impingement syndrome
    occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint. A commono sign is discomfort when raising your arm above your head
  86. Rotator cuff tendinitis
    an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff
  87. Ruptured rotator cuff
    develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues. This occurs as the irritated tendon weakens and tears
  88. Carpal tunnel syndrome
    occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflammed and swollen. The swelling creates pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel. This pressure causes pain, burning, and paresthesia in the thumb, index finger, and middle finger.
  89. Carpal tunnel release
    surgical enlargment of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure
  90. Ganglion cyst
    a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist. Can be caused by repeated minor injuries, is usally painless and doesn't require treatment
  91. Epicondylitis
    inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow (epi- means on, condyl means condyle, and -itis means inflammation)
  92. Heel spur
    a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment the calcaneus bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis
  93. Plantar Fasciitis
    inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole on the foot. This condition causes foot or heel pain when walking or running
  94. Sprain
    injury to a joint that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament
  95. Strain
    injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. Strains are usually associated with overuse injuries that involve a stretched or torn muscle or tendon attachment
  96. Shin splint
    painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia. Can develop in the antrolateral muscles or in the posteromedial muscles of the lowe leg. This is usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg such as running on a hard surface
  97. Hamstring injury
    can be a train or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee. When these muscles contract too quickly an injury can occur that's characterized by sudden and severe pain in the back of the thigh
  98. Achilles tendinitis
    a painful inflammtion of the achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon
  99. Spinal cord injury
    determined by the level of the vertebrae closest to the injury. The higher on the spinal cord the injury occurs, the greater the area of the body that may be affected.Injury occurs when a vertebra is broken and a piece of the bone is pressing into the spinal cord
  100. Incomplete injury
    the person has some function below the level of injury, even though that function isn't normal
  101. Complete injury
    there's complete loss of sensation and muscle control below the level of the injury; however, a complete injury doesn't mean that there's no hope of any improvement.
  102. Paralysis
    the loss od sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its supply nerve. Damage can either be temporary or permanent
  103. Myoparesis
    weakness or slight muscular paralysis (my/o means muscle, -paresis means partial or incomplete paralysis)
  104. Hemiparesis
    slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body (hemi- means half and -paresis means partial or incomplete paralysis)
  105. Hemiplegia
    total paralysis affecting only one side of the body (hemi- means half and -plegia means paralysis) This form of paralysis is usually associated with a stroke or brain damage
  106. Paraplegia
    paralysis of both legs and lower part of the body
  107. Quadriplegic
    paralysis of all four extremities (quadr/i means four and -plegia means paralysis)
  108. Cardioplegia
    (aka cardiac arrest) is paralysis of the heart muscle (cardi/o means heart and -plegia means paralysis)
  109. Deep tendon reflexes
    tested with a reflex hammer that's used to strike a tendon.
  110. Range of motion testing
    a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength. Range of motion exercises are used to increase strengthm flexibility, and mobility
  111. Electromyography
    a diagnostic test that measures the electrical acitivity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation (electr/o means electricity, my/o means muscle, and -graphy means the process of producing a picture or record)
  112. Electroneuromyography
    (aka nerve conduction studies) a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle (electr/o means electricity, neur/o means nerves, my/o means muscle, and -graphy means the process of producing a picture or record)
  113. Antispasmodic
    (aka anticholingeric) is administered preoperatively to supress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestinem or bladder
  114. Skeletal muscle relaxant
    is administered to relax xertain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or ther muscle injuries. These medications act on the central nervous system and may have a negative interaction with alcohol and some antidepressants
  115. Neuromuscular blocker
    (aka neuromuscular blocking agent) a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles. These drugs are used as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery to cause the skeletal muscles to relax
  116. Ergonomics
    the study of human factors that affect the design and opertion of tools and the work environment
  117. Occupational therapy
    consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living
  118. Physical therapy
    treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods ro improve cirrculation, flexibility, and muscle strength
  119. Myofascial release
    a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, TMJ disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome
  120. Therapeutic ultrasound
    utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue. This heat eases pain, reduces muscle spasms, and accelerates healing by increasing the flow of blood into the target tissues
  121. RICE
    most common first treatment og muscle injuries

    • R - rest
    • I - ice
    • C - compression
    • E - elevation
  122. Fasciotomy
    surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure (fasci means fascia and -otomy means surgical incision) Without this procedure, the pressure causes a loss of circulation that damages the affected tissues
  123. Fascioplasty
    surgical repair of the fascia (fasci/o means fascia and -plasty means surgical repair)
  124. Tenodesis
    surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bones (ten/o means tendon and -desis means to bind or tie together)
  125. Tenolysis
    (aka tendolysis) the release of a tendon from adhesions (ten/o means tendon and -lysis means to set free)
  126. Tenectomy
    (aka tenonectomy) the surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath (ten means tendon and -ectomy means surgical removal)
  127. Tenoplasty
    (aka tendinoplasty) surgical repair of a tendon (ten/o means tendon and -plasty means surgical repair)
  128. Tenorrhaphy
    surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon (ten/o means tendon and -rrhaphy means surgical suturing)
  129. Tenotomy
    (aka tendotomy) surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle (ten means tendon and -otomy means surgical incision)
  130. Myectomy
    surgical excision of a portion of a muscle (my means muscle and -ectomy means surgical removal)
  131. Myoplasty
    surgical repair of a muscle (my/o means muscle and -plasty means surgical repair)
  132. Myorrhaphy
    surgical suturing a muscle wound (my/o means muscle and -rrhaphy means surgical suturing)
  133. Myotomy
    surgical incision into a muscle (my/o means muscle and -otomy means surgical incision)
Card Set
Chapter 4
Muscular System