What is the definition of personality? What are psychologists studying personality trying to learn?
Psychologist studying personality are studying how people differ: why they behave differently when exposed to the same situation
What is the difference between states and traits?
- States are temporary conditions. (tired, drunk, good/bad mood)
- Traits are lasting dispositions to behave in a particular way in many situations
What are some examples of states?
(tired, drunk, good/bad mood)
What are some examples of traits?
What are some differences between how we explain our own behavior, and how we explain other people’s behavior?
- We explain other people’s behavior as a product of their personalities
- Ex. “He’s an insensitive person”
- We explain our own behavior in terms of states and satiations
- Ex. “ I was tired and didn’t realize
What are two explanations for the Actor-Observer Bias?
1. The one who acts have special knowledge of his/her experiences up to that moment, and of his/her own motives.
2 We find causes where we focus our attention
What measurement technique helps personality psychologists to be sure that they’re not just measuring temporary states?
Test-retest reliability indicates that a personality is not just measuring temporary states
What are the Big Five Personality Traits? How do people with high scores on each of the Big Five trait dimensions behave?
- Neuroticism (negative emotionality)
- Anxious, insecure, vulnerable, self- conscious, guilt prone
- Talkative, sociable, fun-loving and affectionate.
- Openness to experience
- Curiosity, creativity, flexibility, daring , broad interests, artistic sensitivity, unconventional attitudes
- Ethical, dependable, productive, purposeful ( if you say something they’ll do it)
- Cooperative, modest, straightforward, sympathetic, and trusting
What are some possible additions to the list of the most basic traits?
- - Activity Level