CRC - Foundations, Ethics, and Professional Issues

  1. Rehabilitation Counseling
    The process in which counselors work collaboratively with the client to understand existing problems, barriers, and potentials to facilitate client's effective use of personal and environmental resources for career, personal, social, and community adjustment following disability
  2. Eligibility for vocational rehabilitation services
    • (1)   presence of a physical or mental impairment which results in a substantial impediment to employment.
    • (2) individual can benefit, in terms of employment outcome, from VR services
  3. Goals of VR
    • -  inclusion
    • -  opportunity
    • -  independence
    • -  empowerment
    • -  rehabilitation
    • -  quality of life 
  4. Philosophy of Rehabilitation
    • (1)  Advocacy
    • (2)  Empowerment
    • (3) Informed Choice
    • (4)  Self-determination 
  5. Provided federal funding to states on a matching basis for vocational educational programs
    Smith-Fess Act of 1917
  6. Authorized vocational rehabilitation services for World War I veterans
    The Soldier's Rehabilitation Act of 1918
  7. Expanded rehabilitation services to civilians.  

    Considered the start of public rehabilitation for persons with disabilities
    The Smith-Fess Act of 1920 (Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act)
  8. Made the state-federal vocational rehabilitation program permanent
    The Social Security Act of 1935
  9. Authorized people with blindness to operate vending stands in federal buildings
    The Randolph-Shehherd Act of 1936
  10. Required the federal government to purchase designated products produced by individuals with blindness in workships
    The Wagner-O'Day Act of 1938
  11. Expanded vocational rehabilitative services to people with mental disabilities 
    The Barden-LaFollette Act of 1943
  12. Provided money to universities to train master's level rehabilitation counselors 

    Professionalization of the rehabilitation counseler profession 
    The Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendent of 1954 
  13. Added extended evaluation to the vocational rehabilitation process
    The Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendent of 1965
  14. -  Mandated services for people with severe disabilities
    -  Required the Individualized Written Rehabilitation Program (IWRP)
    -  Guaranteed employment rights for persons with disabilities 
    The Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1973
  15. The Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1973 - Employment Rights
    • Section 501:  Affirmative Action in federal hiring
    • Section 503:  Affirmative Action by federal contract recipients
    • Section 504:  Equal opportunities
  16. Established the Client Assistance Program (CAP)
    The Rehabilitation Act Amendment of 1984
  17. -  Added rehabilitation engineering services
    -  established supported employment as an acceptable goal of rehabilitation services 
    The Rehabilitation Act Amendment of 1986
  18. -  Required state Vocational Rehabilitation agencies to established "qualified personnel" standards for rehabilitation counselors (Comprehensive System of Personnel Development [CSPD]
    -  order of selection
    -  determine eligibility within 60 days
    -  presumption of ability
    -  career-based job placement
    -  similar benefits 
    The Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992
  19. -  Replaced the IWRP with hte Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE)
    -  Introduced technical assistance and consultation services 
    The Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998
  20. federal civil rights law designed to prevent discrimination and enable persons with disabilities to participate in all aspects of society
    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) 
  21. Americans with Disabilties Act - Titles
    • equal opportunties for persons with disabilities in: 
    • Title I:  employment
    • Title II:  public services
    • Title III:  public accommodations
    • Title IV:  telecommunications
    • Title V:  miscellaneous provisions 
  22. ADA definition of disability
    • A person has a disability if:
    •  1st prong:  he/she has a physical/mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity (severe, permanent/long-term)
    • 2nd prong:  he/she has a record of such an impairment
    • 3rd prong:  he/she is regarded by others as a person with impairment
  23. ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) of 2008
    • -  Overturned Sutton v United Airlines and Toyota v. Williams rulings, which declared that "disability" should be strictly interpreted.
    • -  Disability should be defined broadly
    • - to the max extent permitted by the act.
    • -   removes the 3rd prong requirement that the individual demonstrates that hte impairment is perceived to be substantial
  24. Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC)
    Created in 1974 to conduct certication activities on a nationwide basis for Rehabilitaiton Counselors
  25. Council for Rehabilitation Education (CORE)
    Created in 1972 to promote and foster continuing review and improvement of rehabilitation counselor education (RCE) programs
  26. Leah et. al (2003):  7 major job functions essential to the rehabilitation counseling practice
    • 1.  vocational counseling and consultation
    • 2.  counseling interventions
    • 3.  community-based rehabilitation service activities
    • 4.  case management
    • 5.  research application
    • 6.  assessment
    • 7.  professional advocacy 
  27. Leahy et. al (2003):  6 knowledge and skill domains important to rehabilitation counseling practice
    • 1.  Career counseling, assessment, and consultation
    • 2.  Counseling theories, techniques, and application
    • 3.  Rehabilitation services and resources
    • 4.   Case and caseload management
    • 5.  healthcare and disability systems
    • 6.  medical, functional, and environmental implications of disability  
  28. Patterson's Two-Hats Theory
    • Rehabilitation Counselors function as either psychological counselors or rehabilitation counselors
    • -  the field is a subspecialty within the field of counseling 
  29. Whitehouse's Big-Hat Theory
    Rehabilitation Counseling involves a number of roles and functions that justify a distinct area and shouldn't be subsumed under counseling.  
  30. 12 Enforceable Standards of CRC Code of Professional Ethics
    • 1.  Counseling relationship
    • 2.  Confidentiality, priviledged Communication, and privacy
    • 3.  Advocacy and accessibility
    • 4.  Professional responsibility
    • 5.  Relationship with other professionals
    • 6.  Forensic and indirect services
    • 7.  Evaluation, assessment, and interpretation
    • 8.  Teaching, supervision, and training
    • 9.  Research and publication
    • 10.  Technology and distance counseling
    • 11.  Business practices
    • 12.  Resolving ethical issues
  31. 6 Principles of Ethical Behavior
    • Autonomy:  respect he rights of clients to be self-governing
    • Beneficience:  to do good to others and promote well-being of clients
    • Fidelity:  to be faithful, keep promises, and honor the trust placed in rehabilitation counselors
    • Justice:  to be fair in the treatment of all cliens and provide appropriate services to all
    • Nonmaleficience:  to do no harm to others
    • Veracity:  to be honest
  32. Stages of Ethical Reasoning
    • punishment orientation:  unbendingly following social standards related to punishment
    • societal orientation:  maintaining societal standards, getting approval of others, and avoiding difficulties
    • individual orientation:  promoting individual welfare without undermining the laws and welfare of society
    • princile or conscience orientation:  demonstrating concern for the client based on internal standards without regard for legal/social consequences
  33. Client Rights
    • Professional Disclosure Statement:  counselors are obligated to review with clients their limitations, rights, and responsiblities in writing, orally, and in a manner that best accommodates the client's lmitations
    • Informed Consent:  clients have the freedom to choose whether to enter into the rehabilitation counseling relationship.
    • Cultural Sensitivity:  information must be communicated in ways that are developmentally and culturally appropriate.
    • Privacy:  the client has the right to choose the time and circumstances under which, and the extent to which, the client's beliefs, behaviors, and opinions are to be shared or withheld from others
    • Confidentiality:  Rehabilitation counselor responsible for safeguarding clients form unauthorized disclosures of information given in the therapeutic relationship.
    • Priviledged Communication:  legal right of the client from having his/her confidences revealed from the witness stand during legal proceedings without his/her permission.
  34. Limits of Confidentiality
    • 1.  Suicidal ideation
    • 2.  Homicidal ideation
    • 3.  Child abuse (report to CPS within 48 hours)
    • 4.  Abuse of the elderly (report to APS within 24 hours)
    • 5.   Supervisor
    • 6.  Court order
  35. Dual Relationships
    • - Rehabilitation Counselors prohibited from sexual/romantic relationships with: (1) current clients, (2) client's romantic partners, (3) client's immediate family members.
    • -  Rehabilitation Counselors cannot have sexual/romantic relationships with former clients for 5 years following the last professoinal contact
    • -  Rehabilitation Counselors cannot have sexual/romantic relationships with clients who have significant cognitive impairment regardless of time elapsed 
Card Set
CRC - Foundations, Ethics, and Professional Issues
Questions for the CRC Exam