Bio Final

  1. Beadle and Tatum
    Discovered that one gene= one enzyme
  2. Fred Griffith
    Discovered the transforming factor between s strain and R strain
  3. Transforming factor
    Smoothstrain causes pneumonia and the Rough strain does not. Griffith discovered that something from the heat killed smooth bacteria and turned rough bacteria into smooth and he called it?
  4. Avery
    - Concluded that DNA is the genetic material·    
  5. Hershey and Chase
    – perfected the transforming factor·    
  6. Levene
    - discovered that DNA is made of nucleotides
  7. Nucleotides
    5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, Nitrogen base
  8. Nitrogenous bases
    • Purines
    • -Double ring structure
    • -Adenine and Guanine

    • Pyrimidines
    • -Single ring structure
    • -Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil

  9. Erwin Chargaff

    • Discovered the Rule:   G=C   (George Clooney)
    •                                     A=T   (Anne Taylor)·   
  10.  Rosalind Franklin
    - Discovered that DNA is a double helix·    
  11. Watson and Crick
    - Built a model of the double helix that confirmed the others research
  12. 5 stages of virus attack

    • 1. Attachment
    • 2. Injection
    • 3. Replication
    • 4. Assembly
    • 5. Release
  13. Attachment
    -virus attaches to its host
  14. Injection
    -virus injects its DNA into the host cell 
  15. Replication
    -virus copies its genetic material many times
  16. Assembly
    -virus assembles more viruses
  17. Release
    -viruses are released from the cell to attach to new cells
  18. DNA Structure
    • double stranded, sugar= deoxyribose, double helix shape, pairs of bases cytosine, guanine or thymine, adenine.
    • From the top rail, the strand is said to be oriented from 5 to 3
    • The strand on the bottom runs opposite 3 to 5
    • Located in Nucleus
  19. DNA Replication
    • 1.    Unwinding--DNA unwinds at different spots called origins                 
    • 2.  Base pairing- 2 daughter strands are made differently -      Leadingstrand and     Laggingstrand
    • 3.    Joining-  DNA polymerase removes RNA primer and fills it in place with DNA nucleotides
  20. Leading strand
    Built continuously with out breaks
  21. Laggingstrand
    • - makes several small fragments of DNA, built
    • discontinuously
  22. Okazaki Fragment
    Fragments made by Lagging strand, connected by DNA ligase
  23. RNA                                                                  
    single stranded, sugar= ribose, nitrogen bases : Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and uracil, 3 types
  24. 3 Types of RNA
    • 1. Messenger RNA-takes the genetic code to the ribosome   
    • 2. Ribosomal RNA-combines with proteins to make the ribosome structure
    • 3. Transfer RNA-carries amino acids
  25. Transcription
    • located in Nucleus, turns DNA to mRNA, 1st
    • step in making proteins
  26. Translation
    Located in cytoplasm, RNA turns to protein. Codons
  27. Codons
    group of 3 nucleotides on the messenger RNA that specifies one amino acid.
  28. Proteins
    made up of amino acids, peptide bonds link the amino acids together.
  29. Peptide bonds
    -link each amino acids together to form proteins
  30. Mutations
    mistake in DNA, substitution, deletion, insertion
  31. Substitution in Mutations
    Codon reversed with another
  32. Cell size
    • Factors that limit cell growth is the ratio of surface area to volume. As the cell grows its volume increases more rapidly than the surface area.
    • Diffusion over a large distance= slow
    • Diffusion over a small distance= fast
  33. Why do cells divide?
    prevents the cell from becoming to large, also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal injuries
  34. Cell Cycle
    • Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing
    • All cells start out in interphase and then enter cell division, Mitosis and cytokinesis.
  35. Interphase
    • Before mitosis and meiosis, 1st stage of Cell cycleImage Upload 1
    • G1 phase: first growth phase
    • S phase: DNA is copied
    • G2 phase: second growth phase
    • proteins needed for cell division are produced
    • cell prepares for the division
  36. Mitosis
    • Growth
    • 1. Prophase
    • 2. Metaphase
    • 3. Anaphase
    • 4. Telephase
  37. Prophase
    • The cells chromatids are attached at the centromere
    • Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm
    • The nuclear envelope seems to disappear
    • Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids

    Image Upload 2
  38. Metaphase
    • Sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus towards the center of the cell
    • Line up in the middle of the cell

    Image Upload 3
  39. Anaphase
    • The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten
    • The sister chromatids separate
    • The chromosomes move towards the poles of the cell

    Image Upload 4
  40. Telephase
    • The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax
    • 2 new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear
    • the spindle apparatus disassembles

     Image Upload 5
  41. Cytokinesis
    • In animal cells, microfilaments, constrict, or pinch the cytoplasm, they create a cleavage furrow
    • In plant cells a new structure called a plate formImage Upload 6
  42. Meiosis
    • sexual reproduction, production of gametes, comes after mitosis 

  43. Gamete
    sex cells (egg and sperm) haploid·    
  44. Somatic cells
    body cells- diploid·    
  45. Haploid
    half the chromosome number, 1 of each pair of chromosomes·    
  46. Diploid
    • 2 of each type of chromosome (2n), twice the haploid
    • number·    
  47. Fertilization
    sperm enters egg·    
  48. Zygote
    fertilized egg
  49. Homologous chromosomes
    one of 2 paired chromosomes, one from each parent

  50. Autosomes
    chromosomes 1-22 
  51. sex chromosomes
    23rd chromosome    
  52. girl chromosome
  53. boy chromosomes
  54. Meiosis I
     separation of homologous chromosomes

  55. Meiosis II
    separation of sister chromatids
  56. Prophase I
    • Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs (synapsis)
    • Each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids
    • The nuclear envelope breaks down
    • Crossing over produces exchange of genetic infoImage Upload 7
  57. Metaphase I
    • Chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers
    • Homologous chromosomes line up at the equatorImage Upload 8
  58. Anaphase I
    Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite polesImage Upload 9
  59. Telophase I
    • The spindle fibers break down
    • Chromosomes uncoil and form 2 nuclei
    • The cell divides
    • Image Upload 10
  60. Prophase II
    • A 2nd set of phases begins as the spindle apparatus form sand the chromosomes condense
    • Image Upload 11
  61. Metaphase II
    • Chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers
    • Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator

    Image Upload 12
  62. Anaphase II
    • The sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by spindle fibers
    • Move toward the opposite poles of the cell
    • Image Upload 13
  63. Telophase II
    • The chromosomes reach the poles and the nuclear membrane and nuclei reform
    • Image Upload 14
  64. Cytokinesis of meiosis
    • Results in 4 haploid cells
    • Each with n number of chromosomes

     Image Upload 15
  65. Ooogenesis
    production of eggs

  66. Spermatogenesis
    production of sperm, provide egg with nutrients
  67. Gregor Mendel
    “Father of Genetics” Austrian monk, worked with pea plants, discovered how traits were inherited in a population
  68. Inheritance
    passing of traits by heredity

  69. Heredity
    Transmission of traits from parents to their offspring
  70. Pollination
    transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma in flowers
  71. Self pollination
    occurs within the same flower or same plant
  72. Cross pollination
    occurs between different plants
  73. Genetics
    study of heredity
  74. Gene
    segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular protein, occur inpairs·    
  75. Allele
    alternative form of a gene·    
  76. Dominant
    capital letter (shields recessive trait)·    
  77. Recessive
    lowercase letter (usually hidden)·    
  78. Genotype
    genetic makeup of an organism (genes)·   
  79.  Phenotype
    physical characteristics of an organism
  80. Homozygous
    when both alleles of a pair are the same·  
  81. Heterozygous
    when both alleles of a pair are not the same
  82. Mendels Laws
    • Law of Dominance
    • Law of Segregation
    • Law of Independent assortment
  83. Law of Dominance
    Each trait is controlled by 2 factors, one factor (dominant) may mask the other factor (recessive) preventing it from having an affect
  84. Law of Segregation
    each allele a person has separates into different gametes
  85. Law of independent assortment
    Gene pairs (homologous) will separate randomly into gametes. (metaphase I of meiosis)

  86. Phenotypic ratio
    • ratio of different physical traits

  87. Genotype Ratio
    Ratio ofthe different possible alleles
  88. Test cross
    an individual with unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual
  89. Incomplete dominance
    heterozygous is an intermediate phenotype between the 2 homozygous phenotypes, 2 alleles are blended.
  90. Codominance
    Neither trait is dominant instead both traits are shown (No blending)
  91. Dominance
    one allele is completely dominant over the other


  92. Multiple alleles
    3 or more alleles that control a trait
Card Set
Bio Final
Bio final