History Final Exam

  1. Define: Bill of Rights
    A formal summary of essential rights and liberties.
  2. Define: Articles of Confederation
    The first constitution of the United States; it created a central government with limited powers and was replaced by the Constitution in 1788.
  3. Define: Confederation
    An association of states or nations united for joint action in matters that affect them all.
  4. Define: Jefferson's Indian policy
    He attributed the differences between Indians and Europeans to the Indian's cultural retardation. He argued that harsh economic conditions and lack of written language had kept the INdians in a condition of "barbarisim." Jefferson was confident that whites could help lift Indians out of their uncivilized state.
  5. Define: Northwest Ordinances
    Three laws (1784, 1785, 1787) that dealt with the sale of public land in the Northewest Territory and established a plan for the admission of new states to the Union.
  6. Define: Great Compromise
    A plan for a federal government that set up a bicameral legislature, with one house providing equal representation to all states and the other providing proportional representation based on population.
  7. Define: Sedition Act
    Law passed by Congress in 1798 outlawing any criticism of the U.S. government that might bring the government into disrepute; the law was enforce mainly against Republicans.
  8. Define: Battle of Fallen Timbers
    Battle in August 1794 in which Kentucky riflemen defeated Indians of several tribes, hastening the end of Indian resistance in the Northwest.
  9. Define: Treaty of Greenville
    Treaty of 1795 under which Northwest Indians were paid about $10,000 to cede land that later became the state of Ohio.
  10. Define: St. Clair's Defeat
    The 1791 battle between the U.S. and Indian Confederacy. It was the greatest Indian victory against the U.S. in history.
  11. Define: Constitutional Convention
    The meeting of state delegates in Philadelphia in 1787, which resulted in the writing of the Constitution.
  12. Define: The First Party System
    Exsisting roughly between 1792 and 1824. It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party (created by Alexander Hamilton) and the Democratic-Republican Party (created by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison).
  13. What was the difference between the Federalist and Democratic-Republicans?
    Federalists believed in a strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Generally they were Pro-British. The Federalists were pro-manufacturing and banking. They wanted to reimburse Revolutionary War debts, increase tariffs to promote manufacturing and institute an internal excise tax. Democrat-Republicans believed in States rights with a weaker central government and a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Generally they were Pro-French. They believed the Federalists were elitist. Democrat-Republicans were pro-agriculture. They thought only white males who owned property should vote, and that all men should own property. If the US had an agriculturally based economy they would be able to feed themselves, sell the surplus, and purchase manufactured goods from Europe. It was believed that people would put aside their own personal gain for the public good. When the Democrat-Republicans gained National office they repealed excise taxes, retired the national debt and reduced the size of the armed forces. The party only lasted from 1792 to about 1828.
  14. Define: Federalists
    Supporters of ratification of the Constitution; they believed in a strong central government. They were a political group led by Alexander Hamilton that formed during Washington's first administration; they favored commerical growth and a strong central government.
  15. Define: Republicans (aka Democratic-Republicans or Jeffersonian Republicans)
    Political group led by Thomas Jefferson that favored limited government and envisioned the United States as a nation of independent farmers.
  16. Define: War of 1812
    a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France. It was fought chiefly on the Atlantic Ocean and on the land, coasts and waterways of North America.
  17. Define: Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    Battle in 1814 between Tennesse militia and Creek Indians in Alabama; the American victory marked the end of Indian power in the South.
  18. Define: Battle of New Orleans
    Battle in the War of 1812 in which American troops commanded by Anderw Jackson repulsed the British attempt to seize New Orleans.
  19. Define: Treaty of Ghent
    Treaty ending the War of 1812, signed in Belgium in 1814; it restored peace but was silent on the issues over which the United States and Britian had clashed.
  20. Define: Hartford Convention. How did it effect the First Party System?
    The Hartford Convention was an event spanning from December 15, 1814–January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
  21. How did Andrew Jackson rise to national prominence?
    The “corrupt bargain” of the 1824 presidential election, which swung the vote to John Quincy Adams, promised a difficult four years for the activist Adams as president. Adams’ “corrupt bargain” proved to overshadow any accomplishments during his administration and fueled the creation of the Democratic Party, around General Andrew Jackson. Jackson was frustrated by the congressional deal that kept him out of office in 1824 and managed to bring together angry supporters of Adams and Jackson, states’ rights activists, workers, and farmers across the country to form this new party.
  22. Define: Marbury v. Madison
    Supreme Court decision (1803) declaring part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstituional and thus establishing the principle of judical review.
  23. Define: Judician Review
    The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and the states.
  24. Define: Louisiana Purchase
    The U.S. purchase of Louisiana from France for $15 million in 1803; the Louisian Territory extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
  25. Define: The Lewis and Clark Expedition
    The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back. The expedition team was headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and assisted by Sacajawea and Toussaint Charbonneau. The expedition's goal was to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition laid much of the groundwork for the westward expansion of the United States.
  26. Define: Meriwether Lewis
    Jefferson aide who was sent to explore the Louisiana Territory in 1803; he later served as its governor.
  27. Define: William Clark
    Soldier and explorer who joined Meriwether Lewis on the expedition to explore the Louisian Territory; he was responsible for mapmaking.
  28. Define: Sacajawea
    Shoshone woman who served as guide and interpreter on the Lewis anc Clark expedition.
  29. Define: Tecumseh
    Shawnee leader and brother of the Prophet; he tried to establish an Indian Confederacy along the frontier as a barrier to white expansion.
  30. Define: The Prophet (aka Tenskwatwa)
    Shawnee religious visionary who called for a return to Indian traditions and founded the community of Prophetstown on Tippecanoe Creek in Indiana.
  31. Describe the birth of the Old South.
    Innovations and key inventions of the Industrial Revolution shaped the economy of the South. Largely, it was Whitney's Cotten Gin invention that made short staple cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery.
  32. Define: Eli Whitney
    Invented the Cotten gin and interchangable gun parts.
  33. Define: Martin Van Buren
    New York politican known for his skillful handling of party policies; he helped found the Democratic party and later became 8th president of the United States.
  34. Define: The Second Party System
    • A political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854. The system was characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest beginning in 1828, as demonstrated by election day turnout, rallies, partisan newspapers, and a high degree of personal loyalty to party.
    • The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans, and other opponents of Jackson.
  35. Define: Whig Party
    Political party that came into being in 1843 as an anti-Jackson coalition and the charged "King Andrew" with executive tyranny.
  36. Define: Democrates
    Political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office; it harked back to Jeffersonian principles of limited government and drew its support from farmers and small businessmen.
  37. Define: The Rotation in Office (aka Spoils) System
    Jobs and other rewards for political support.
  38. Define: The Corrupt Bargin
    Jackson and his supporters claimed this happened in the election of 1824 when Henry Clay allegedly sold his support during the House vote in the disputed election of John Quincy Adams.
  39. Define: The Indian Removal Act
    Law passed by Congress in 1830 providing for the removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of western lands for their resettlement.
  40. Define: Five Civilized Tribes
    Term used by whites to describe the Cherokke, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw Indians, many of whom were Europeanized farmers and merchants.
  41. Define: George Guess (Seqouyah)
    Cherokee silversmith and trader who created an alphabet that made it possible to transcribe the Cherokee language according to the sounds of its syllables.
  42. Define: Worcester v. Georgia
    Supreme Court case (1832) concerning the arrest of two missionaries living amont the Cherokees in Georgia; the Court found that Georgia had no right to rule in Cherokee territory.
  43. Define: Trail of Tears
    Force march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter of 1838; thousands of Cherokees died.
  44. Define: Oseola
    Semiole leader in Florida who opposed removal of his people to the West and led resistance to U.S. troops; he was captured by treachery while bearing a flag of truce.
  45. How did newly emerging networks of transportation and communication change the expectations of Americans in the North, West, and South?
    Steam power made cross country travel safer and faster, it also allowed for publications to be circulated nationally. The electric telegraph made instant communication possible. And the legal band on monopolies made a national market economy possible.
  46. Define: Abolitionism
    A reform movement favoring the immediate freeing of all slaves.
  47. Define: William Lloyd Garrison
    Abolitionist leader who founded and published The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper.
  48. Define: The Liberator
    The Liberator (1831-1866) was an abolitionist newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison in 1831.
  49. Define: Lucretia Mott
    Quaker minister who founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (1833) and co-organized the Senca Falls Women's Rights Convention in 1848.
  50. Define: Nat Turner's Revolt
    A uprising in 1831 led by Nat Turner that caused a rebellion of slaves in Virginia; he was captured and executed.
  51. Define: Underground Railroad
    An informal network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists who were sympathetic to their cause.
  52. Define: Harriet Tubman
    She was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. After escaping from slavery, into which she was born, she made thirteen missions to rescue over seventy slaves using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage.
  53. Define: Francis Wright
    The Feminist who founded the utopian community, Nashoba, in Memphis for the purpose of freeing slaves.
  54. Define: Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    Pioneering woman sufferage leader and co-organizer of the first Woman's Rights Convention, held in Senca Falls, New York, in 1848.
  55. Define: Margaret Fuller
    was a journalist, critic and women's rights activist associated with the American transcendental movement. She was the first full-time female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
  56. Define: The Senca Falls Convention
    Assembly held at Seneca Falls, N.Y., that launched the U.S. woman suffrage movement. Initiated by Elizabeth Cady Stanton (who lived in Seneca Falls) and Lucretia Mott, the meeting was attended by more than 200 people, including 40 men. The group passed the Declaration of Sentiments, a list of grievances and demands modeled on the Declaration of Independence that called on women to organize and petition for their rights. A controversial demand for the right to vote passed by a narrow margin.
  57. Define: The Declaration of Sentiments
    is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men, 100 out of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known as the Seneca Falls Convention. The principal author of the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments was Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who based it on the form of the United States Declaration of Independence and listed grivences regarding the treatment of women. According to the North Star, published by Frederick Douglass, whose attendance at the convention and support of the Declaration helped pass the resolutions put forward, the document was the "grand basis for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women."
  58. Define: The Westward Migration
    Following the American Revolution, Americans swarmed to the West. Kentucky and Tennessee provided the beachhead for the vanguard of land-hungry settlers. After the War of 1812 subsequent waves of pioneers flowed into the Ohio River valley, the Great Lake states, the Gulf Plain, and the Mississippi River valley. Still more moved to Oregon and California in the 1840s and into Kansas by the 1850s. By the Civil War much of the territory between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic, as well as areas along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest, had been settled by the descendants of Europeans.
  59. Define: Texas Revolution
    A revolt by American colonists in Texas against Mexican rule; it began in 1835 and ended with the establishment of the Republic of Texas in 1836.
  60. Define: The Mexican-American War
    An armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
  61. Define: Wilmot Proviso
    Amendment to an appropriations bill in 1846 proposing the any territory acquired from Mexico be closed to slavery; it was defeated in the Senate.
  62. Define: David Wilmot
    He was a U.S. political figure. He was a sponsor and eponym of the Wilmot Proviso which aimed to ban slavery in land gained from Mexico in the Mexican-American War of 1846–48.
  63. Define: John L. O'Sullivan
    He coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845.
  64. Define: Manifest Destiny
    Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.
  65. Define: Popular Sovereignty
    The doctrine that the people of a territory had the right to determine whether slavery would exist within their territory.
Card Set
History Final Exam
History Final Exam