COM 308

  1. purpose of textual analysis
    • - understand: the content and structure of our text
    • - investigate the variables: see how history relates to the future
    • - interpret: makes sense of what happened
  2. Categories of Text
    • transcript of communication: verbatim written version of what was said
    • output of communication: messages produced by a communicator
    • internal validity: is less of a threat in naturalistic methods
  3. Rhetorical criticism (Positivistic)
    a systematic method for describing and evaluating the persuasive forces of messages embedded in a text
  4. Five Key Functions of Rhetorical Criticism
    • - illuminate the purpose of a message
    • - understand contexts, such as historic or cultural context
    • - evaluate society
    • - illustrate theory in practice
    • - pedagocical function: used to educate other people
  5. Types of Rhetorical Criticisms
    • historical: analyze the past
    • historical case studies: look at one particular event in history to see what role communication played
    • biographical studies: examine a person's life
    • social movement studies: fighting for rights of someone
  6. Content Analysis (Postivistic)
    what are the characteristics of what is being said, the content
  7. Two types of Content Analysis
    • quantitative CA: count the characteristics; unobtrusive bc they already exist
    • qualitative CA: focus on the meaning of the message- what are the themes or patterns that are emerging
  8. Interaction Analysis (Positivistic)
    looking at how people interact
  9. Performance Analysis (Positivistic)
    studying theory to understand a culture
  10. Naturalistic Inquiry
    • wants to study people in their own environment
    • goal is to describe and interpret
  11. Key Assumptions of Naturalistic Inquiry
    • naturalism: need it in its environment and watch and observe what is happening in that specific situation
    • phenomenology: focus fully on what is happening in its context; no preconceived notions
    • interpretation: the researcher cannot be separated from what is being researched
  12. Types of Naturalistic Inquiry
    • ethnography: emerse yourself in a certain context in order to study a specific group of people's behavior
    • ethnomethodology: look at actual interactions between people in their everyday communication
    • critical ethnography: one specific goal to provide social justice
    • auto-ethnography: when you are describing your own life and communication behaviors while trying to make sense of the world around you
  13. The Flow of Inquiry
    • context: what's the scene of what you want to study
    • embodied practice: you are the instrument- you have to place yourself within the context to make observation
    • tools: basic (tacit) knowledge and qualitative methods -one way we measure tacit knowledge is when people break the rules
    • informants: person who is in your context
    • execution: the actual act of emersing yourself within the context and adapt as you go
    • theoretical understanding
  14. Researcher roles
    • complete participant: no one knows you are doing research, complete member
    • complete observer: you do not interact with people, just watch
    • participant observer: you do as much as you can but people are aware that you are a researcher
    • observer-participant: you primarily watch but on limited times interact
  15. How you record observations:
    thousands of pages of field notes, recording from memory or in person of every detail possible
  16. In-depth Interviewing
    • focus: people's life experiences
    • inductive: let participants tell their stories
    • exploratory: unstructured, based on how long the participant decides to talk
    • meaningful connections between researcher and participant
  17. theoretical sample
    try to find people who fit a particular theoretical theory characteristic
  18. Interview methods:
    • phenomenological: interview without your own assumptions - try to avoid asking why
    • feminist: gain social justice
    • ethnomethodological: recognize that while you are interviewing you may give off non-verbals that will influence the interview
    • narrative: everything you want you have done in a storytelling way
    • critical incident technique: ask about a most memorable or negative experience
    • episode analysis: ask a person to reconstruct a timeframe in their life
    • account analysis: ask someone about an account they observed
    • protocol analysis: ask your participants to tell you about how they feel and what they are thinking while engaged in a specific activity
    • stimulated recall: playback something for the participant and ask them to recall what they were thinking when they did it
  19. focus groups
    group of people with common characteristics who interact. Used as a way to gain information about a topic at hand. At least 7-10 unfamiliar people required
  20. Prepping for Focus Groups
    • - identify the major objective for the meeting
    • - carefully develop five to six questions
    • - plan your session
    • - contact potential members
  21. Focus Group Questions
    • - use open ended questions
    • - avoid why questions
    • - questions should be systematically preped but have a natural flow to them
    • - arrange questions in logical sequence
    • - allow for unanticipated questions
    • - pilot test: a group of people we test our questions on but not used in our research
  22. Three Types of Focus Group Data
    • Transcription: raw data; the verbatim account of what happened
    • Personal Notes: notes you take while conducting the interview such as non verbals and descriptors about people
    • theoretical notes: most complex; interpretatons and notes we take during interview regarding how we see data relating to theory and literature
  23. Analyzing Qualitative Data: Four Principles
    • On going process: takes a long time
    • Reduction: Physical reduction is to reduce to a few key components we want to focus on and conceptual reduction is to focus on certain themes and categories
    • explanations:
    • - first order: researcher- participant responses, raw data
    • - second order: when we add on the researcher
    • theory development:
    • - grounded theory: begin knowing nothing about what you are interested in, but as you keep reading you begin to know what you want to study
    • - constant comparitive: have an idea of what you are looking for and constantly compare it to someone else's theory or prior work
  24. Experiment Design
    a functional research design with the purpose of explaining certain variables impact on certain outcome variables
Card Set
COM 308
Test 2