1. abreaction
    A process by which repressed material, particularly a painful experience or a conflict, is brought back to consciousness; in this process, the person not only recalls, but also relives the repressed material, which is accompanied by the appropriate affective response.
  2. abstract thinking
    Thinking characterized by the ability to grasp the essentials of a whole, to break a whole into its parts, and to discern common properties. To think symbolically.
  3. abulia
    Reduced impulse to act and to think, associated with indifference about consequences of action. Occurs as a result of neurological deficit, depression, and schizophrenia.
  4. acalculia
    Loss of ability to do calculations; not caused by anxiety or impairment in concentration. Occurs with neurological deficit and learning disorder.
  5. acataphasia
    Disordered speech in which statements are incorrectly formulated. Patients may express themselves with words that sound like the ones intended, but are not appropriate to the thoughts, or they may use totally inappropriate expressions.
  6. acathexis
    Lack of feeling associated with an ordinarily emotionally charged subject; in psychoanalysis, it denotes the patient's detaching or transferring of emotion from thoughts and ideas. Also called decathexis. Occurs in anxiety, dissociative, schizophrenic, and bipolar disorders.
  7. acenesthesia
    • Loss of sensation of physical existence.
    • acrophobia
    • Dread of high places.
    • acting out
  8. Behavioral response to an unconscious drive or impulse that brings about temporary partial relief of inner tension; relief is attained by reacting to a present situation as if it were the situation that originally gave rise to the drive or impulse. Common in borderline states.
  9. aculalia
    Nonsense speech associated with marked impairment of comprehension. Occurs in mania, schizophrenia, and neurological deficit.
  10. adiadochokinesia
    Inability to perform rapid alternating movements. Occurs with neurological deficit and cerebellar lesions.
  11. adynamia
    Weakness and fatigability, characteristic of neurasthenia and depression.
  12. aerophagia
    Excessive swallowing of air. Seen in anxiety disorder.
  13. affect
    The subjective and immediate experience of emotion attached to ideas or mental representations of objects. Affect has outward manifestations that can be classified as restricted, blunted, flattened, broad, labile, appropriate, or inappropriate. See also mood.
  14. ageusia
    Lack or impairment of the sense of taste. Seen in depression and neurological deficit.
  15. aggression
    Forceful, goal-directed action that can be verbal or physical; the motor counterpart of the affect of rage, anger, or hostility. Seen in neurological deficit, temporal lobe disorder, impulse-control disorders, mania, and schizophrenia.
  16. agitation
    Severe anxiety associated with motor restlessness.
  17. agnosia
    Inability to understand the importance or significance of sensory stimuli; cannot be explained by a defect in sensory pathways or cerebral lesion; the term has also been used to refer to the selective loss or disuse of knowledge of specific objects because of emotional circumstances, as seen in certain schizophrenic, anxious, and depressed patients. Occurs with neurological deficit.
  18. agoraphobia
    Morbid fear of open places or leaving the familiar setting of the home. May be present with or without panic attacks.
  19. agraphia
    Loss or impairment of a previously possessed ability to write.
  20. ailurophobia
    Dread of cats.
  21. akathisia
    Subjective feeling of motor restlessness manifested by a compelling need to be in constant movement; may be seen as an extrapyramidal adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. May be mistaken for psychotic agitation.
  22. akinesia
    Lack of physical movement, as in the extreme immobility of catatonic schizophrenia; can also occur as an extrapyramidal effect of antipsychotic medication.
  23. akinetic mutism
    Absence of voluntary motor movement or speech in a patient who is apparently alert (as evidenced by eye movements). Seen in psychotic depression and catatonic states.
  24. alexia
    Loss of a previously possessed reading facility; not explained by defective visual acuity. Compare with Dyslexia.
  25. alexithymia
    Inability or difficulty in describing or being aware of one's emotions or moods; elaboration of fantasies associated with depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  26. algophobia
    Dread of pain.
  27. alogia
    Inability to speak because of a mental deficiency or an episode of dementia.
  28. ambivalence
    • Coexistence of two opposing impulses toward the same thing in the same person at the same time. Seen in schizophrenia, borderline states, and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCDs).
    • P.274
  29. amimia
    Lack of the ability to make gestures or to comprehend those made by others.
  30. amnesia
    Partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be organic (amnestic disorder) or emotional (dissociative amnesia) in origin.
  31. amnestic aphasia
    Disturbed capacity to name objects, even though they are known to the patient. Also called anomic aphasia.
  32. anaclitic
    Depending on others, especially as the infant on the mother; anaclitic depression in children results from an absence of mothering.
  33. analgesia
    State in which one feels little or no pain. Can occur under hypnosis and in dissociative disorder.
  34. anancasm
    Repetitious or stereotyped behavior or thought usually used as a tension-relieving device; used as a synonym for obsession and seen in obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality.
  35. androgyny
    Combination of culturally determined female and male characteristics in one person.
  36. anergia
    Lack of energy.
  37. anhedonia
    Loss of interest in, and withdrawal from, all regular and pleasurable activities. Often associated with depression.
  38. anomia
    Inability to recall the names of objects.
  39. anorexia
    Loss or decrease in appetite. In anorexia nervosa, appetite may be preserved, but the patient refuses to eat.
  40. anosognosia
    Inability to recognize a physical deficit in oneself (e.g., patient denies paralyzed limb).
  41. anterograde amnesia
    Loss of memory for events subsequent to the onset of the amnesia; common after trauma. Compare with retrograde amnesia.
  42. anxiety
    Feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger, which may be internal or external.
  43. apathy
    Dulled emotional tone associated with detachment or indifference; observed in certain types of schizophrenia and depression.
  44. aphasia
    Any disturbance in the comprehension or expression of language caused by a brain lesion.
  45. aphonia
    Loss of voice. Seen in conversion disorder.
  46. apperception
    Awareness of the meaning and significance of a particular sensory stimulus as modified by one's own experiences, knowledge, thoughts, and emotions. See also perception.
  47. appropriate affect
    Emotional tone in harmony with the accompanying idea, thought, or speech.
  48. apraxia
    Inability to perform a voluntary purposeful motor activity; cannot be explained by paralysis or other motor or sensory impairment. In constructional apraxia, a patient cannot draw two- or three-dimensional forms.
  49. astasia abasia
    Inability to stand or to walk in a normal manner, even though normal leg movements can be performed in a sitting or lying down position. Seen in conversion disorder.
  50. astereognosis
    Inability to identify familiar objects by touch. Seen with neurological deficit. See also neurological amnesia.
  51. asyndesis
    Disorder of language in which the patient combines unconnected ideas and images. Commonly seen in schizophrenia.
  52. ataxia
    Lack of coordination, physical or mental. (1) In neurology, refers to loss of muscular coordination. (2) In psychiatry, the term intrapsychic ataxia refers to lack of coordination between feelings and thoughts; seen in schizophrenia and in severe OCD.
  53. atonia
    Lack of muscle tone. See waxy flexibility.
  54. attention
    Concentration; the aspect of consciousness that relates to the amount of effort exerted in focusing on certain aspects of an experience, activity, or task. Usually impaired in anxiety and depressive disorders.
  55. auditory hallucination
    False perception of sound, usually voices, but also other noises, such as music. Most common hallucination in psychiatric disorders.
  56. aura
    • (1) Warning sensations, such as automatisms, fullness in the stomach, blushing, and changes in respiration; cognitive sensations, and mood states usually experienced before a seizure.
    • (2) A sensory prodrome that precedes a classic migraine headache.
  57. autistic thinking
    Thinking in which the thoughts are largely narcissistic and egocentric, with emphasis on subjectivity rather than objectivity, and without regard for reality; used interchangeably with autism and dereism. Seen in schizophrenia and autistic disorder.
  58. behavior
    Sum total of the psyche that includes impulses, motivations, wishes, drives, instincts, and cravings, as expressed by a person's behavior or motor activity. Also called conation.
  59. bereavement
    Feeling of grief or desolation, especially at the death or loss of a loved one.
  60. bizarre delusion
    False belief that is patently absurd or fantastic (e.g., invaders from space have implanted electrodes in a person's brain). Common in schizophrenia. In nonbizarre delusion, content is usually within the range of possibility.
  61. blackout
    Amnesia experienced by alcoholics about behavior during drinking bouts; usually indicates reversible brain damage.
  62. blocking
    Abrupt interruption in train of thinking before a thought or idea is finished; after a brief pause, the person indicates no recall of what was being said or was going to be said (also known as thought deprivation or increased thought latency). Common in schizophrenia and severe anxiety.
  63. blunted affect
    Disturbance of affect manifested by a severe reduction in the intensity of externalized feeling tone; one of the fundamental symptoms of schizophrenia, as outlined by Eugen Bleuler.
  64. bradykinesia
    Slowness of motor activity, with a decrease in normal spontaneous movement.
  65. bradylalia
    Abnormally slow speech. Common in depression.
  66. bradylexia
    Inability to read at normal speed.
  67. bruxism
    Grinding or gnashing of the teeth, typically occurring during sleep. Seen in anxiety disorder.
  68. carebaria
    Sensation of discomfort or pressure in the head.
  69. catalepsy
    Condition in which persons maintain the body position into which they are placed; observed in severe cases of catatonic schizophrenia. Also called waxy flexibility and cerea flexibilitas. See also command automatism.
  70. cataplexy
    • Temporary sudden loss of muscle tone, causing weakness and immobilization; can be precipitated by a variety of emotional states and is often followed by sleep. Commonly seen in narcolepsy.
    • catatonic excitement
    • Excited, uncontrolled motor activity seen in catatonic schizophrenia. Patients in catatonic state may suddenly erupt into an excited state and may be violent.
  71. catatonic posturing
    Voluntary assumption of an inappropriate or bizarre posture, generally maintained for long periods of time. May switch unexpectedly with catatonic excitement.
  72. catatonic rigidity
    • Fixed and sustained motoric position that is resistant to change.
    • P.275
  73. catatonic stupor
    Stupor in which patients ordinarily are well aware of their surroundings.
  74. cathexis
    In psychoanalysis, a conscious or unconscious investment of psychic energy in an idea, concept, object, or person. Compare with acathexis.
  75. causalgia
    Burning pain that can be organic or psychic in origin.
  76. cenesthesia
    Change in the normal quality of feeling tone in a part of the body.
  77. cephalagia
  78. cerea flexibilitas
    Condition of a person who can be molded into a position that is then maintained; when an examiner moves the person's limb, the limb feels as if it were made of wax. Also called catalepsy or waxy flexibility. Seen in schizophrenia.
  79. chorea
    Movement disorder characterized by random and involuntary quick, jerky, purposeless movements. Seen in Huntington's disease.
  80. circumstantiality
    Disturbance in the associative thought and speech processes in which a patient digresses into unnecessary details and inappropriate thoughts before communicating the central idea. Observed in schizophrenia, obsessional disturbances, and certain cases of dementia. See also tangentiality.
  81. clang association
    Association or speech directed by the sound of a word rather than by its meaning; words have no logical connection; punning and rhyming may dominate the verbal behavior. Seen most frequently in schizophrenia or mania.
  82. claustrophobia
    Abnormal fear of closed or confining spaces.
  83. clonic convulsion
    An involuntary, violent muscular contraction or spasm in which the muscles alternately contract and relax. Characteristic phase in grand mal epileptic seizure.
  84. clouding of consciousness
    Any disturbance of consciousness in which the person is not fully awake, alert, and oriented. Occurs in delirium, dementia, and cognitive disorder.
  85. cluttering
    Disturbance of fluency involving an abnormally rapid rate and erratic rhythm of speech that impedes intelligibility; the affected individual is usually unaware of communicative impairment.
  86. cognition
    Mental process of knowing and becoming aware; function is closely associated with judgment.
  87. coma
    State of profound unconsciousness from which a person cannot be roused, with minimal or no detectable responsiveness to stimuli; seen in injury or disease of the brain, in systemic conditions, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and uremia; and in intoxications with alcohol and other drugs. Coma can also occur in severe catatonic states and in conversion disorder.
  88. coma vigil
    Coma in which a patient appears to be asleep, but can be aroused (also known as akinetic mutism).
  89. command automatism
    Condition associated with catalepsy in which suggestions are followed automatically.
  90. command hallucination
    False perception of orders that a person may feel obliged to obey or unable to resist.
  91. complex
    A feeling-toned idea.
  92. complex partial seizure
    A seizure characterized by alterations in consciousness that may be accompanied by complex hallucinations (sometimes olfactory) or illusions. During the seizure, a state of impaired consciousness resembling a dream-like state may occur, and the patient may exhibit repetitive, automatic, or semipurposeful behavior.
  93. compulsion
    Pathological need to act on an impulse that, if resisted, produces anxiety; repetitive behavior in response to an obsession or performed according to certain rules, with no true end in itself other than to prevent something from occurring in the future.
  94. conation
    That part of a person's mental life concerned with cravings, strivings, motivations, drives, and wishes as expressed through behavior or motor activity.
  95. concrete thinking
    Thinking characterized by actual things, events, and immediate experience, rather than by abstractions; seen in young children, in those who have lost or never developed the ability to generalize (as in certain cognitive mental disorders), and in schizophrenic persons. Compare with abstract thinking.
  96. condensation
    Mental process in which one symbol stands for a number of components.
  97. confabulation
    Unconscious filling of gaps in memory by imagining experiences or events that have no basis in fact, commonly seen in amnestic syndromes; should be differentiated from lying. See also paramnesia.
  98. confusion
    Disturbances of consciousness manifested by a disordered orientation in relation to time, place, or person.
  99. consciousness
    State of awareness, with response to external stimuli.
  100. constipation
    Inability to defecate or difficulty in defecating.
  101. constricted affect
    Reduction in intensity of feeling tone that is less severe than that of blunted affect.
  102. constructional apraxia
    Inability to copy a drawing, such as a cube, clock, or pentagon, as a result of a brain lesion.
  103. conversion phenomena
    The development of symbolic physical symptoms and distortions involving the voluntary muscles or special sense organs; not under voluntary control and not explained by any physical disorder. Most common in conversion disorder, but also seen in a variety of mental disorders.
  104. convulsion
    An involuntary, violent muscular contraction or spasm. See also clonic convulsion and tonic convulsion.
  105. coprolalia
    Involuntary use of vulgar or obscene language. Observed in some cases of schizophrenia and in Tourette's syndrome.
  106. coprophagia
    Eating of filth or feces.
  107. cryptographia
    A private written language.
  108. cryptolalia
    A private spoken language.
  109. cycloplegia
    Paralysis of the muscles of accommodation in the eye; observed, at times, as an autonomic adverse effect (anticholinergic effect) of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication.
  110. Decompensation
    Deterioration of psychic functioning caused by a breakdown of defense mechanisms. Seen in psychotic states.
  111. deja entendu
    Illusion that what one is hearing one has heard previously. See also paramnesia.
  112. Deja pense
    Condition in which a thought never entertained before is incorrectly regarded as a repetition of a previous thought. See also paramnesia.
  113. Deja vu
    Illusion of visual recognition in which a new situation is incorrectly regarded as a repetition of a previous experience. See also paramnesia.
  114. delirium
    Acute reversible mental disorder characterized by confusion and some impairment of consciousness; generally associated with emotional lability, hallucinations or illusions, and inappropriate, impulsive, irrational, or violent behavior.
  115. delirium tremens
    • Acute and sometimes fatal reaction to withdrawal from alcohol, usually occurring 72 to 96 hours after the cessation of heavy drinking; distinctive characteristics are marked autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia, fever, hyperhidrosis, and dilated pupils), usually accompanied by tremulousness, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. Called alcohol withdrawal delirium in DSM-IV-TR. See also formication.
    • P.276
  116. delusion
    False belief, based on incorrect inference about external reality, that is firmly held despite objective and obvious contradictory proof or evidence and despite the fact that other members of the culture do not share the belief.
  117. delusion of control
    False belief that a person's will, thoughts, or feelings are being controlled by external forces.
  118. delusion of grandeur
    Exaggerated conception of one's importance, power, or identity.
  119. delusion of infidelity
    False belief that one's lover is unfaithful. Sometimes called pathological jealousy.
  120. delusion of persecution
    False belief of being harassed or persecuted; often found in litigious patients who have a pathological tendency to take legal action because of imagined mistreatment. Most common delusion.
  121. delusion of poverty
    False belief that one is bereft or will be deprived of all material possessions.
  122. delusion of reference
    False belief that the behavior of others refers to oneself or that events, objects, or other people have a particular and unusual significance, usually of a negative nature; derived from idea of reference, in which persons falsely feel that others are talking about them (e.g., belief that people on television or radio are talking to or about the person). See also thought broadcasting.
  123. delusion of self-accusation
    False feeling of remorse and guilt. Seen in depression with psychotic features.
  124. dementia
    Mental disorder characterized by general impairment in intellectual functioning without clouding of consciousness; characterized by failing memory, difficulty with calculations, distractibility, alterations in mood and affect, impaired judgment and abstraction, reduced facility with language, and disturbance of orientation. Although irreversible because of underlying progressive degenerative brain disease, dementia may be reversible if the cause can be treated.
  125. denial
    Defense mechanism in which the existence of unpleasant realities is disavowed; refers to keeping out of conscious awareness any aspects of external reality that, if acknowledged, would produce anxiety.
  126. depersonalization
    Sensation of unreality concerning oneself, parts of oneself, or one's environment that occurs under extreme stress or fatigue. Seen in schizophrenia, depersonalization disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.
  127. depression
    Mental state characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach; accompanying signs include psychomotor retardation or, at times, agitation, withdrawal from interpersonal contact, and vegetative symptoms, such as insomnia and anorexia. The term refers to a mood that is so characterized or to a mood disorder.
  128. derailment
    Gradual or sudden deviation in train of thought without blocking; sometimes used synonymously with loosening of association.
  129. derealization
    Sensation of changed reality or that one's surroundings have altered. Usually seen in schizophrenia, panic attacks, and dissociative disorders.
  130. dereism
    Mental activity that follows a totally subjective and idiosyncratic system of logic and fails to take the facts of reality or experience into consideration. Characteristic of schizophrenia. See also autistic thinking.
  131. detachment
    Characterized by distant interpersonal relationships and lack of emotional involvement.
  132. devaluation
    Defense mechanism in which a person attributes excessively negative qualities to self or others. Seen in depression and paranoid personality disorder.
  133. diminished libido
    Decreased sexual interest and drive. (Increased libido is often associated with mania.)
  134. dipsomania
    Compulsion to drink alcoholic beverages.
  135. disinhibition
    (1) Removal of an inhibitory effect, as in the reduction of the inhibitory function of the cerebral cortex by alcohol. (2) In psychiatry, a greater freedom to act in accordance with inner drives or feelings and with less regard for restraints dictated by cultural norms or one's superego.
  136. disorientation
    Confusion; impairment of awareness of time, place, and person (the position of the self in relation to other persons). Characteristic of cognitive disorders.
  137. displacement
    Unconscious defense mechanism by which the emotional component of an unacceptable idea or object is transferred to a more acceptable one. Seen in phobias.
  138. dissociation
    Unconscious defense mechanism involving the segregation of any group of mental or behavioral processes from the rest of the person's psychic activity; may entail the separation of an idea from its accompanying emotional tone, as seen in dissociative and conversion disorders. Seen in dissociative disorders.
  139. distractibility
    Inability to focus one's attention; the patient does not respond to the task at hand but attends to irrelevant phenomena in the environment.
  140. dread
    Massive or pervasive anxiety, usually related to a specific danger.
  141. dreamy state
    Altered state of consciousness, likened to a dream situation, which develops suddenly and usually lasts a few minutes; accompanied by visual, auditory, and olfactory hallucinations. Commonly associated with temporal lobe lesions.
  142. drowsiness
    State of impaired awareness associated with a desire or inclination to sleep.
  143. dysarthria
    Difficulty in articulation, the motor activity of shaping phonated sounds into speech, not in word finding or in grammar.
  144. dyscalculia
    Difficulty in performing calculations.
  145. dysgeusia
    Impaired sense of taste.
  146. dysgraphia
    Difficulty in writing.
  147. dyskinesia
    Difficulty in performing movements. Seen in extrapyramidal disorders.
  148. dyslalia
    Faulty articulation caused by structural abnormalities of the articulatory organs or impaired hearing.
  149. dyslexia
    Specific learning disability syndrome involving an impairment of the previously acquired ability to read; unrelated to the person's intelligence. Compare with alexia.
  150. dysmetria
    Impaired ability to gauge distance relative to movements. Seen in neurological deficit.
  151. dysmnesia
    Impaired memory.
  152. dyspareunia
    Physical pain in sexual intercourse, usually emotionally caused and more commonly experienced by women; can also result from cystitis, urethritis, or other medical conditions.
  153. dysphagia
    Difficulty in swallowing.
  154. dysphasia
    • Difficulty in comprehending oral language (reception dysphasia) or in trying to express verbal language (expressive dysphasia).
    • P.277
  155. dysphonia
    Difficulty or pain in speaking.
  156. dysphoria
    Feeling of unpleasantness or discomfort; a mood of general dissatisfaction and restlessness. Occurs in depression and anxiety.
  157. dysprosody
    Loss of normal speech melody (prosody). Common in depression.
  158. dystonia
    Extrapyramidal motor disturbance consisting of slow, sustained contractions of the axial or appendicular musculature; one movement often predominates, leading to relatively sustained postural deviations; acute dystonic reactions (facial grimacing and torticollis) are occasionally seen with the initiation of antipsychotic drug therapy.
  159. echolalia
    Psychopathological repeating of words or phrases of one person by another; tends to be repetitive and persistent. Seen in certain kinds of schizophrenia, particularly the catatonic types.
  160. ego-alien
    Denoting aspects of a person's personality that are viewed as repugnant, unacceptable, or inconsistent with the rest of the personality. Also called ego-dystonia. Compare with ego-syntonic.
  161. egocentric
    Self-centered; selfishly preoccupied with one's own needs; lacking interest in others.
  162. ego-dystonic
    See ego-alien.
  163. egomania
    Morbid self-preoccupation or self-centeredness. See also narcissism.
  164. ego-syntonic
    Denoting aspects of a personality that are viewed as acceptable and consistent with that person's total personality. Personality traits are usually ego-syntonic. Compare with ego-alien.
  165. eidetic image
    Unusually vivid or exact mental image of objects previously seen or imagined.
  166. elation
    Mood consisting of feelings of joy, euphoria, triumph, and intense self-satisfaction or optimism. Occurs in mania when not grounded in reality.
  167. elevated mood
    Air of confidence and enjoyment; a mood more cheerful than normal but not necessarily pathological.
  168. emotion
    Complex feeling state with psychic, somatic, and behavioral components; external manifestation of emotion is affect.
  169. emotional insight
    A level of understanding or awareness that one has emotional problems. It facilitates positive changes in personality and behavior when present.
  170. emotional lability
    Excessive emotional responsiveness characterized by unstable and rapidly changing emotions.
  171. encopresis
    Involuntary passage of feces, usually occurring at night or during sleep.
  172. enuresis
    Incontinence of urine during sleep.
  173. erotomania
    Delusional belief, more common in women than in men, that someone is deeply in love with them (also known as de Clérambault syndrome).
  174. erythrophobia
    Abnormal fear of blushing.
  175. euphoria
    Exaggerated feeling of well-being that is inappropriate to real events. Can occur with drugs such as opiates, amphetamines, and alcohol.
  176. euthymia
    Normal range of mood, implying absence of depressed or elevated mood.
  177. evasion
    Act of not facing up to, or strategically eluding, something; consists of suppressing an idea that is next in a thought series and replacing it with another idea closely related to it. Also called paralogia and perverted logic.
  178. exaltation
    Feeling of intense elation and grandeur.
  179. excited
    Agitated, purposeless motor activity uninfluenced by external stimuli.
  180. expansive mood
    Expression of feelings without restraint, frequently with an overestimation of their significance or importance. Seen in mania and grandiose delusional disorder.
  181. expressive aphasia
    Disturbance of speech in which understanding remains, but ability to speak is grossly impaired; halting, laborious, and inaccurate speech (also known as Broca's, nonfluent, and motor aphasias).
  182. expressive dysphasia
    Difficulty in expressing verbal language; the ability to understand language is intact.
  183. externalization
    More general term than projection that refers to the tendency to perceive in the external world and in external objects elements of one's own personality, including instinctual impulses, conflicts, moods, attitudes, and styles of thinking.
  184. extroversion
    State of one's energies being directed outside oneself. Compare with introversion.
  185. false memory
    A person's recollection and belief of an event that did not actually occur. In false memory syndrome, persons erroneously believe that they sustained an emotional or physical (e.g., sexual) trauma in early life.
  186. fantasy
    Daydream; fabricated mental picture of a situation or chain of events. A normal form of thinking dominated by unconsciousness material that seeks wish fulfillment and solutions to conflicts; may serve as the matrix for creativity. The content of the fantasy may indicate mental illness.
  187. fatigue
    A feeling of weariness, sleepiness, or irritability after a period of mental or bodily activity. Seen in depression, anxiety, neurasthenia, and somatoform disorders.
  188. fausse reconnaissance
    False recognition, a feature of paramnesia. Can occur in delusional disorders.
  189. fear
    Unpleasurable emotional state consisting of psychophysiological changes in response to a realistic threat or danger. Compare with anxiety.
  190. flat affect
    Absence or near absence of any signs of affective expression.
  191. flight of ideas
    Rapid succession of fragmentary thoughts or speech in which content changes abruptly and speech may be incoherent. Seen in mania.
  192. floccillation
    Aimless plucking or picking, usually at bedclothes or clothing, commonly seen in dementia and delirium.
  193. fluent aphasia
    Aphasia characterized by inability to understand the spoken word; fluent but incoherent speech is present. Also called Wernicke's, sensory, and receptive aphasias.
  194. folie à deux
    Mental illness shared by two persons, usually involving a common delusional system; if it involves three persons, it is referred to as folie à trois, and so on. Also called shared psychotic disorder.
  195. formal thought disorder
    Disturbance in the form rather than the content of thought; thinking characterized by loosened associations, neologisms, and illogical constructs; thought process is disordered, and the person is defined as psychotic. Characteristic of schizophrenia.
  196. formication
    Tactile hallucination involving the sensation that tiny insects are crawling over the skin. Seen in cocaine addiction and delirium tremens.
  197. free-floating anxiety
    • Severe, pervasive, generalized anxiety that is not attached to any particular idea, object, or event. Observed particularly in anxiety disorders, although it may be seen in some cases of schizophrenia.
    • P.278
  198. fugue
    Dissociative disorder characterized by a period of almost complete amnesia, during which a person actually flees from an immediate life situation and begins a different life pattern; apart from the amnesia, mental faculties and skills are usually unimpaired.
  199. galactorrhea
    Abnormal discharge of milk from the breast; may result from the endocrine influence (e.g., prolactin) of dopamine receptor antagonists, such as phenothiazines.
  200. generalized tonic-clonic seizure
    Generalized onset of tonic-clonic movements of the limbs, tongue-biting, and incontinence followed by slow, gradual recovery of consciousness and cognition; also called grand mal seizure.
  201. global aphasia
    Combination of grossly nonfluent aphasia and severe fluent aphasia.
  202. glossolalia
    Unintelligible jargon that has meaning to the speaker but not to the listener. Occurs in schizophrenia.
  203. grandiosity
    Exaggerated feelings of one's importance, power, knowledge, or identity. Occurs in delusional disorder and manic states.
  204. grief
    Alteration in mood and affect consisting of sadness appropriate to a real loss; normally, it is self-limited. See also depression and mourning.
  205. guilt
    Emotional state associated with self-reproach and the need for punishment. In psychoanalysis, refers to a feeling of culpability that stems from a conflict between the ego and the superego (conscience). Guilt has normal psychological and social functions, but special intensity or absence of guilt characterizes many mental disorders, such as depression and antisocial personality disorder, respectively. Psychiatrists distinguish shame as a less internalized form of guilt that relates more to others than to the self. See also shame.
  206. gustatory hallucination
    Hallucination primarily involving taste.
  207. gynecomastia
    Female-like development of the male breasts; can occur as an adverse effect of antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs because of increased prolactin levels or anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse.
  208. hallucination
    False sensory perception occurring in the absence of any relevant external stimulation of the sensory modality involved. For types of hallucinations, see the specific term.
  209. hallucinosis
    State in which a person experiences hallucinations without any impairment of consciousness.
  210. haptic hallucination
    Hallucination of touch.
  211. hebephrenia
    Complex of symptoms, considered a form of schizophrenia, characterized by wild or silly behavior or mannerisms, inappropriate affect, and delusions and hallucinations that are transient and unsystematized. Hebephrenic schizophrenia is now called disorganized schizophrenia.
  212. holophrastic
    Using a single word to express a combination of ideas. Seen in schizophrenia.
  213. hyperactivity
    Increased muscular activity. The term is commonly used to describe a disturbance found in children that is manifested by constant restlessness, overactivity, distractibility, and difficulties in learning. Seen in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  214. hyperalgesia
    Excessive sensitivity to pain. Seen in somatoform disorder.
  215. hyperesthesia
    Increased sensitivity to tactile stimulation.
  216. hypermnesia
    Exaggerated degree of retention and recall. It can be elicited by hypnosis and may be seen in certain prodigies; also can be a feature of OCD, some cases of schizophrenia, and manic episodes of bipolar I disorder.
  217. hyperphagia
    Increase in appetite and intake of food.
  218. hyperpragia
    Excessive thinking and mental activity. Generally associated with manic episodes of bipolar I disorder.
  219. hypersomnia
    Excessive time spent asleep. Can be associated with underlying medical or psychiatric disorder or narcolepsy, can be part of the Kleine-Levin syndrome, or may be primary.
  220. hyperventilation
    Excessive breathing, generally associated with anxiety, which can reduce blood carbon dioxide concentration and can produce lightheadedness, palpitations, numbness, tingling periorally and in the extremities, and, occasionally, syncope.
  221. hypervigilance
    Excessive attention to, and focus on, all internal and external stimuli; usually seen in delusional or paranoid states.
  222. hypesthesia
    Diminished sensitivity to tactile stimulation.
  223. hypnagogic hallucination
    Hallucination occurring while falling asleep, not ordinarily considered pathological.
  224. hypnopompic hallucination
    Hallucination occurring while awakening from sleep, not ordinarily considered pathological.
  225. hypnosis
    Artificially induced alteration of consciousness characterized by increased suggestibility and receptivity to direction.
  226. hypoactivity
    Decreased motor and cognitive activity, as in psychomotor retardation; visible slowing of thought, speech, and movements. Also called hypokinesis.
  227. hypochondria
    Exaggerated concern about health that is based not on real medical pathology, but on unrealistic interpretations of physical signs or sensations as abnormal.
  228. hypomania
    Mood abnormality with the qualitative characteristics of mania, but somewhat less intense. Seen in cyclothymic disorder.
  229. idea of reference
    Misinterpretation of incidents and events in the outside world as having direct personal reference to oneself; occasionally observed in normal persons, but frequently seen in paranoid patients. If present with sufficient frequency or intensity or if organized and systematized, they constitute delusions of reference.
  230. illogical thinking
    Thinking containing erroneous conclusions or internal contradictions; psychopathological only when it is marked and not caused by cultural values or intellectual deficit.
  231. illusion
    Perceptual misinterpretation of a real external stimulus. Compare with hallucination.
  232. immediate memory
    Reproduction, recognition, or recall of perceived material within seconds after presentation. Compare with long-term memory and short-term memory.
  233. impaired insight
    Diminished ability to understand the objective reality of a situation.
  234. impaired judgment
    Diminished ability to understand a situation correctly and to act appropriately.
  235. impulse control
    Ability to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform some action.
  236. inappropriate affect
    Emotional tone out of harmony with the idea, thought, or speech accompanying it. Seen in schizophrenia.
  237. incoherence
    Communication that is disconnected, disorganized, or incomprehensible. See also word salad.
  238. incorporation
    • Primitive unconscious defense mechanism in which the psychic representation of another person or aspects of another person are assimilated into oneself through a figurative process of symbolic oral ingestion; represents a special form of introjection and is the earliest mechanism of identification.
    • P.279
  239. increased libido
    Increase in sexual interest and drive.
  240. ineffability
    Ecstatic state in which persons insist that their experience is inexpressible and indescribable and that it is impossible to convey what it is like to one who has never experienced it.
  241. initial insomnia
    Falling asleep with difficulty; usually seen in anxiety disorder. Compare with middle insomnia and terminal insomnia.
  242. insight
    Conscious recognition of one's own condition. In psychiatry, it refers to the conscious awareness and understanding of one's own psychodynamics and symptoms of maladaptive behavior; highly important in effecting changes in the personality and behavior of a person.
  243. insomnia
    Difficulty in falling asleep or difficulty in staying asleep. It can be related to a mental disorder, a physical disorder, or an adverse effect of medication; or it can be primary (not related to a known medical factor or another mental disorder). See also initial insomnia, middle insomnia, and terminal insomnia.
  244. intellectual insight
    Knowledge of the reality of a situation without the ability to use that knowledge successfully to effect an adaptive change in behavior or to master the situation. Compare with true insight.
  245. intelligence
    Capacity for learning and ability to recall, integrate constructively, and apply what one has learned; the capacity to understand and to think rationally.
  246. intoxication
    Mental disorder caused by recent ingestion or presence in the body of an exogenous substance producing maladaptive behavior by virtue of its effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The most common psychiatric changes involve disturbances of perception, wakefulness, attention, thinking, judgment, emotional control, and psychomotor behavior; the specific clinical picture depends on the substance ingested.
  247. intropunitive
    Turning anger inward toward oneself. Commonly observed in depressed patients.
  248. introspection
    Contemplating one's own mental processes to achieve insight.
  249. introversion
    State in which a person's energies are directed inward toward the self, with little or no interest in the external world.
  250. irrelevant answer
    Answer that is not responsive to the question.
  251. irritability
    Abnormal or excessive excitability, with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.
  252. irritable mood
    State in which one is easily annoyed and provoked to anger. See also irritability.
  253. jamais vu
    Paramnestic phenomenon characterized by a false feeling of unfamiliarity with a real situation that one has previously experienced.
  254. jargon aphasia
    Aphasia in which the words produced are neologistic; that is, nonsense words created by the patient.
  255. judgment
    Mental act of comparing or evaluating choices within the framework of a given set of values for the purpose of electing a course of action. If the course of action chosen is consonant with reality or with mature adult standards of behavior, judgment is said to be intact or normal; judgment is said to be impaired if the chosen course of action is frankly maladaptive, results from impulsive decisions based on the need for immediate gratification, or is otherwise not consistent with reality as measured by mature adult standards.
  256. kleptomania
    Pathological compulsion to steal.
  257. la belle indiference
    Inappropriate attitude of calm or lack of concern about one's disability. May be seen in patients with conversion disorder.
  258. labile affect
    Affective expression characterized by rapid and abrupt changes, unrelated to external stimuli.
  259. labile mood
    Oscillations in mood between euphoria and depression or anxiety.
  260. laconic speech
    Condition characterized by a reduction in the quantity of spontaneous speech; replies to questions are brief and unelaborated, and little or no unprompted additional information is provided. Occurs in major depression, schizophrenia, and organic mental disorders. Also called poverty of speech.
  261. lethologica
    Momentary forgetting of a name or proper noun. See blocking.
  262. lilliputian hallucination
    Visual sensation that persons or objects are reduced in size; more properly regarded as an illusion. See also micropsia.
  263. localized amnesia
    Partial loss of memory; amnesia restricted to specific or isolated experiences. Also called lacunar amnesia and patch amnesia.
  264. logorrhea
    Copious, pressured, coherent speech; uncontrollable, excessive talking; observed in manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Also called tachylogia, verbomania, and volubility.
  265. long-term memory
    Reproduction, recognition, or recall of experiences or information that was experienced in the distant past. Also called remote memory. Compare with immediate memory and short-term memory.
  266. loosening of associations
    Characteristic schizophrenic thinking or speech disturbance involving a disorder in the logical progression of thoughts, manifested as a failure to communicate verbally adequately; unrelated and unconnected ideas shift from one subject to another. See also tangentiality.
  267. macropsia
    False perception that objects are larger than they really are. Compare with micropsia.
  268. magical thinking
    A form of dereistic thought; thinking similar to that of the preoperational phase in children (Jean Piaget), in which thoughts, words, or actions assume power (e.g., to cause or to prevent events).
  269. malingering
    Feigning disease to achieve a specific goal, for example, to avoid an unpleasant responsibility.
  270. mania
    Mood state characterized by elation, agitation, hyperactivity, hypersexuality, and accelerated thinking and speaking (flight of ideas). Seen in bipolar I disorder. See also hypomania.
  271. manipulation
    Maneuvering by patients to get their own way; characteristic of antisocial personalities.
  272. mannerism
    Ingrained, habitual involuntary movement.
  273. melancholia
    Severe depressive state. Used in the term involutional melancholia as a descriptive term and also in reference to a distinct diagnostic entity.
  274. memory
    Process whereby what is experienced or learned is established as a record in the CNS (registration), where it persists with a variable degree of permanence (retention) and can be recollected or retrieved from storage at will (recall). For types of memory, see immediate memory, long-term memory, and short-term memory.
  275. mental disorder
    • Psychiatric illness or disease whose manifestations are primarily characterized by behavioral or psychological impairment of function, measured in terms of deviation from some normative concept; associated with distress or disease, not just an expected response to a particular event or limited to relations between a person and society.
    • P.280
  276. mental retardation
    Subaverage general intellectual functioning that originates in the developmental period and is associated with impaired maturation and learning, and social maladjustment. Retardation is commonly defined in terms of intelligent quotient (IQ): mild (between 50 and 55 to 70), moderate (between 35 and 40 to between 50 and 55), severe (between 20 and 25 to between 35 and 40), and profound (below 20 to 25).
  277. metonymy
    Speech disturbance common in schizophrenia in which the affected person uses a word or phrase that is related to the proper one but is not the one ordinarily used; for example, the patient speaks of consuming a menu rather than a meal, or refers to losing the piece of string of the conversation, rather than the thread of the conversation. See also paraphasia and word approximation.
  278. microcephaly
    Condition in which the head is unusually small as a result of defective brain development and premature ossification of the skull.
  279. micropsia
    False perception that objects are smaller than they really are. Sometimes called lilliputian hallucination. Compare with macropsia.
  280. middle insomnia
    Waking up after falling asleep without difficulty and then having difficulty in falling asleep again. Compare with initial insomnia and terminal insomnia.
  281. mimicry
    Simple, imitative motion activity of childhood.
  282. monomania
    Mental state characterized by preoccupation with one subject.
  283. mood
    Pervasive and sustained feeling tone that is experienced internally and that, in the extreme, can markedly influence virtually all aspects of a person's behavior and perception of the world. Distinguished from affect, the external expression of the internal feeling tone.
  284. mood-congruent delusion
    Delusion with content that is mood appropriate (e.g., depressed patients who believe that they are responsible for the destruction of the world).
  285. mood-congruent hallucination
    Hallucination with content that is consistent with a depressed or manic mood (e.g., depressed patients hearing voices telling them that they are bad persons and manic patients hearing voices telling them that they have inflated worth, power, or knowledge).
  286. mood-incongruent delusion
    Delusion based on incorrect reference about external reality, with content that has no association to mood or is mood inappropriate (e.g., depressed patients who believe that they are the new Messiah).
  287. mood-incongruent hallucination
    Hallucination not associated with real external stimuli, with content that is not consistent with depressed or manic mood (e.g., in depression, hallucinations not involving such themes as guilt, deserved punishment, or inadequacy; in mania, not involving such themes as inflated worth or power).
  288. mood swings
    Oscillation of a person's emotional feeling tone between periods of elation and periods of depression.
  289. motor aphasia
    Aphasia in which understanding is intact, but the ability to speak is lost. Also called Broca's, expressive, or nonfluent aphasias.
  290. mourning
    Syndrome following loss of a loved one, consisting of preoccupation with the lost individual, weeping, sadness, and repeated reliving of memories. See also bereavement and grief.
  291. muscle rigidity
    State in which the muscles remain immovable; seen in schizophrenia.
  292. mutism
    Organic or functional absence of the faculty of speech. See also stupor.
  293. mydriasis
    Dilation of the pupil; sometimes occurs as an autonomic (anticholinergic) or atropine-like adverse effect of some antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs.
  294. narcissism
    In psychoanalytic theory, divided into primary and secondary types: primary narcissism, the early infantile phase of object relationship development, when the child has not differentiated the self from the outside world, and all sources of pleasure are unrealistically recognized as coming from within the self, giving the child a false sense of omnipotence; secondary narcissism, when the libido, once attached to external love objects, is redirected back to the self. See also autistic thinking.
  295. needle phobia
    The persistent, intense, pathological fear of receiving an injection.
  296. negative signs
    In schizophrenia: flat affect, alogia, abulia, and apathy.
  297. negativism
    Verbal or nonverbal opposition or resistance to outside suggestions and advice; commonly seen in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patient resists any effort to be moved or does the opposite of what is asked.
  298. neologism
    New word or phrase whose derivation cannot be understood; often seen in schizophrenia. It has also been used to mean a word that has been incorrectly constructed but whose origins are nonetheless understandable (e.g., headshoe to mean hat), but such constructions are more properly referred to as word approximations.
  299. neurological amnesia
    • (1) Auditory amnesia: loss of ability to comprehend sounds or speech.
    • (2) Tactile amnesia: loss of ability to judge the shape of objects by touch. See also astereognosis. (3) Verbal amnesia: loss of ability to remember words.
    • (4) Visual amnesia: loss of ability to recall or to recognize familiar objects or printed words.
  300. nihilism
    Delusion of the nonexistence of the self or part of the self; also refers to an attitude of total rejection of established values or extreme skepticism regarding moral and value judgments.
  301. nihilistic delusion
    Depressive delusion that the world and everything related to it have ceased to exist.
  302. noeisis
    Revelation in which immense illumination occurs in association with a sense that one has been chosen to lead and command. Can occur in manic or dissociative states.
  303. nominal aphasia
    Aphasia characterized by difficulty in giving the correct name of an object. See also anomia and amnestic aphasia.
  304. nymphomania
    Abnormal, excessive, insatiable desire in a woman for sexual intercourse. Compare with satyriasis.
  305. obsession
    Persistent and recurrent idea, thought, or impulse that cannot be eliminated from consciousness by logic or reasoning; obsessions are involuntary and ego-dystonic. See also compulsion.
  306. olfactory hallucination
    Hallucination primarily involving smell or odors; most common in medical disorders, especially in the temporal lobe.
  307. orientation
    State of awareness of oneself and one's surroundings in terms of time, place, and person.
  308. overactivity
    Abnormality in motor behavior that can manifest itself as psychomotor agitation, hyperactivity (hyperkinesis), tics, sleepwalking, or compulsions.
  309. overvalued idea
    • False or unreasonable belief or idea that is sustained beyond the bounds of reason. It is held with less intensity or duration than a delusion, but is usually associated with mental illness.
    • P.281
  310. panic
    Acute, intense attack of anxiety associated with personality disorganization; the anxiety is overwhelming and accompanied by feelings of impending doom.
  311. panphobia
    Overwhelming fear of everything.
  312. pantomime
    Gesticulation; psychodrama without the use of words.
  313. paramnesia
    Disturbance of memory in which reality and fantasy are confused. It is observed in dreams and in certain types of schizophrenia and organic mental disorders; it includes phenomena such as déjà vu and déjà entendu, which can occur occasionally in normal persons.
  314. paranoia
    Rare psychiatric syndrome marked by the gradual development of a highly elaborate and complex delusional system, generally involving persecutory or grandiose delusions, with few other signs of personality disorganization or thought disorder.
  315. paranoid delusions
    Includes persecutory delusions and delusions of reference, control, and grandeur.
  316. paranoid ideation
    Thinking dominated by suspicious, persecutory, or grandiose content of less than delusional proportions.
  317. paraphasia
    Abnormal speech in which one word is substituted for another, the irrelevant word generally resembling the required one in morphology, meaning, or phonetic composition; the inappropriate word may be a legitimate one used incorrectly, such as clover instead of hand, or a bizarre nonsense expression, such as treen instead of train. Paraphasic speech may be seen in organic aphasias and in mental disorders such as schizophrenia. See also metonymy and word approximation.
  318. parapraxis
    Faulty act, such as a slip of the tongue or the misplacement of an article. Freud ascribed parapraxes to unconscious motives.
  319. paresis
    Weakness or partial paralysis of organic origin.
  320. paresthesia
    Abnormal spontaneous tactile sensation, such as a burning, tingling, or pins-and-needles sensation.
  321. perception
    Conscious awareness of elements in the environment by the mental processing of sensory stimuli; sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to the mental process by which all kinds of data, intellectual, emotional, and sensory, are meaningfully organized. See also apperception.
  322. perseveration
    • (1) Pathological repetition of the same response to different stimuli, as in a repetition of the same verbal response to different questions.
    • (2) Persistent repetition of specific words or concepts in the process of speaking. Seen in cognitive disorders, schizophrenia, and other mental illness. See also verbigeration.
  323. phantom limb
    False sensation that an extremity that has been lost is, in fact, present.
  324. phobia
    Persistent, pathological, unrealistic, intense fear of an object or situation; the phobic person may realize that the fear is irrational but, nonetheless, cannot dispel it.
  325. pica
    Craving and eating of nonfood substances, such as paint and clay.
  326. polyphagia
    Pathological overeating.
  327. positive signs
    In schizophrenia: hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder.
  328. posturing
    Strange, fixed, and bizarre bodily positions held by a patient for an extended time. See also catatonia.
  329. poverty of speech content
    Speech that is adequate in amount, but conveys little information because of vagueness, emptiness, or stereotyped phrases.
  330. poverty of speech
    Restriction in the amount of speech used; replies may be monosyllabic. See also laconic speech.
  331. preoccupation of thought
    Centering of thought content on a particular idea, associated with a strong affective tone, such as a paranoid trend or a suicidal or homicidal preoccupation.
  332. pressured speech
    Increase in the amount of spontaneous speech; rapid, loud, accelerated speech, as occurs in mania, schizophrenia, and cognitive disorders.
  333. primary process thinking
    In psychoanalysis, the mental activity directly related to the functions of the id and characteristic of unconscious mental processes; marked by primitive, prelogical thinking and by the tendency to seek immediate discharge and gratification of instinctual demands. Includes thinking that is dereistic, illogical, magical; normally found in dreams, abnormally in psychosis. Compare with secondary process thinking.
  334. projection
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which persons attribute to another those generally unconscious ideas, thoughts, feelings, and impulses that are in themselves undesirable or unacceptable as a form of protection from anxiety arising from an inner conflict; by externalizing whatever is unacceptable, they deal with it as a situation apart from themselves.
  335. prosopagnosia
    Inability to recognize familiar faces that is not caused by impaired visual acuity or level of consciousness.
  336. pseudocyesis
    Rare condition in which a nonpregnant patient has the signs and symptoms of pregnancy, such as abdominal distention, breast enlargement, pigmentation, cessation of menses, and morning sickness.
  337. pseudodementia
    • (1) Dementia-like disorder that can be reversed by appropriate treatment and is not caused by organic brain disease.
    • (2) Condition in which patients show exaggerated indifference to their surroundings in the absence of a mental disorder; also occurs in depression and factitious disorders.
  338. pseudologia phantastica
    Disorder characterized by uncontrollable lying in which patients elaborate extensive fantasies that they freely communicate and act on.
  339. psychomotor agitation
    Physical and mental overactivity that is usually nonproductive and is associated with a feeling of inner turmoil, as seen in agitated depression.
  340. psychosis
    Mental disorder in which the thoughts, affective response, ability to recognize reality, and ability to communicate and relate to others are sufficiently impaired to interfere grossly with the capacity to deal with reality; the classic characteristics of psychosis are impaired reality testing, hallucinations, delusions, and illusions.
  341. psychotic
    • (1) Person experiencing psychosis.
    • (2) Denoting or characteristic of psychosis.
  342. rationalization
    An unconscious defense mechanism in which irrational or unacceptable behavior, motives, or feelings are logically justified or made consciously tolerable by plausible means.
  343. reaction formation
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which a person develops a socialized attitude or interest that is the direct antithesis of some infantile wish or impulse that is harbored consciously or unconsciously. One of the earliest and most unstable defense mechanisms, closely related to repression; both are defenses against impulses or urges that are unacceptable to the ego.
  344. reality testing
    • Fundamental ego function that consists of tentative actions that test and objectively evaluate the nature and limits of the environment; includes the ability to differentiate between the external world and the internal world and to accurately judge the relation between the self and the environment.
    • P.282
  345. recall
    Process of bringing stored memories into consciousness. See also memory.
  346. recent memory
    Recall of events over the past few days.
  347. recent past memory
    Recall of events over the past few months.
  348. receptive aphasia
    Organic loss of ability to comprehend the meaning of words; fluid and spontaneous, but incoherent and nonsensical, speech. See also fluent aphasia and sensory aphasia.
  349. receptive dysphasia
    Difficulty in comprehending oral language; the impairment involves comprehension and production of language.
  350. regression
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which a person undergoes a partial or total return to earlier patterns of adaptation; observed in many psychiatric conditions, particularly schizophrenia.
  351. remote memory
    Recall of events from the distant past.
  352. repression
    Freud's term for an unconscious defense mechanism in which unacceptable mental contents are banished or kept out of consciousness; important in normal psychological development and in neurotic and psychotic symptom formation. Freud recognized two kinds of repression: (1) repression proper, in which the repressed material was once in the conscious domain, and (2) primal repression, in which the repressed material was never in the conscious realm. Compare with suppression.
  353. restricted affect
    Reduction in intensity of feeling tone, which is less severe than in blunted affect, but clearly reduced. See also constricted affect.
  354. retrograde amnesia
    Loss of memory for events preceding the onset of the amnesia. Compare with anterograde amnesia.
  355. retrospective falsification
    Memory becomes unintentionally (unconsciously) distorted by being filtered through a person's present emotional, cognitive, and experiential state.
  356. rigidity
    In psychiatry, a person's resistance to change, a personality trait.
  357. ritual
    • (1) Formalized activity practiced by a person to reduce anxiety, as in OCD.
    • (2) Ceremonial activity of cultural origin.
  358. rumination
    Constant preoccupation with thinking about a single idea or theme, as in OCD.
  359. satyriasis
    Morbid, insatiable sexual need or desire in a man. Compare with nymphomania.
  360. scotoma
    • (1) In psychiatry, a figurative blind spot in a person's psychological awareness.
    • (2) In neurology, a localized visual field defect.
  361. secondary process thinking
    In psychoanalysis, the form of thinking that is logical, organized, reality oriented, and influenced by the demands of the environment; characterizes the mental activity of the ego. Compare with primary process thinking.
  362. seizure
    An attack or sudden onset of certain symptoms, such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, and psychic or sensory disturbances; seen in epilepsy and can be substance induced.
  363. sensorium
    Hypothetical sensory center in the brain that is involved with clarity of awareness about oneself and one's surroundings, including the ability to perceive and to process ongoing events in light of past experiences, future options, and current circumstances; sometimes used interchangeably with consciousness.
  364. sensory aphasia
    Organic loss of ability to comprehend the meaning of words; fluid and spontaneous, but incoherent and nonsensical, speech. See also fluent aphasia and receptive aphasia.
  365. sensory extinction
    Neurological sign operationally defined as failure to report one of two simultaneously presented sensory stimuli, despite that either stimulus alone is correctly reported. Also called sensory inattention.
  366. shame
    Failure to live up to self-expectations; often associated with fantasy of how person will be seen by others. See also guilt.
  367. short-term memory
    Reproduction, recognition, or recall of perceived material within minutes after the initial presentation. Compare with immediate memory and long-term memory.
  368. simultanagnosia
    Impairment in the perception or integration of visual stimuli appearing simultaneously.
  369. somatic delusion
    Delusion pertaining to the functioning of one's body.
  370. somatic hallucination
    Hallucination involving the perception of a physical experience localized within the body.
  371. somatopagnosia
    Inability to recognize a part of one's body as one's own (also called ignorance of the body and autotopagnosia).
  372. somnolence
    Pathological sleepiness or drowsiness from which one can be aroused to a normal state of consciousness.
  373. spatial agnosia
    Inability to recognize spatial relations.
  374. speaking in tongues
    Expression of a revelatory message through unintelligible words; not considered a disorder of thought if associated with practices of specific Pentecostal religions. See also glossolalia.
  375. stereotypy
    Continuous mechanical repetition of speech or physical activities; observed in catatonic schizophrenia.
  376. stupor
    • (1) State of decreased reactivity to stimuli and less than full awareness of one's surroundings; as a disturbance of consciousness, it indicates a condition of partial coma or semicoma.
    • (2) In psychiatry, used synonymously with mutism and does not necessarily imply a disturbance of consciousness; in catatonic stupor, patients are ordinarily aware of their surroundings.
  377. stuttering
    Frequent repetition or prolongation of a sound or syllable, leading to markedly impaired speech fluency.
  378. sublimation
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which the energy associated with unacceptable impulses or drives is diverted into personally and socially acceptable channels; unlike other defense mechanisms, it offers some minimal gratification of the instinctual drive or impulse.
  379. substitution
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which a person replaces an unacceptable wish, drive, emotion, or goal with one that is more acceptable.
  380. suggestibility
    State of uncritical compliance with influence or of uncritical acceptance of an idea, belief, or attitude; commonly observed among persons with hysterical traits.
  381. suicidal ideation
    Thoughts or act of taking one's own life.
  382. suppression
    Conscious act of controlling and inhibiting an unacceptable impulse, emotion, or idea; differentiated from repression in that repression is an unconscious process.
  383. symbolization
    Unconscious defense mechanism in which one idea or object comes to stand for another because of some common aspect or quality in both; based on similarity and association; the symbols formed protect the person from the anxiety that may be attached to the original idea or object.
  384. synesthesia
    • Condition in which the stimulation of one sensory modality is perceived as sensation in a different modality, as when a sound produces a sensation of color.
    • P.283
  385. syntactical aphasia
    Aphasia characterized by difficulty in understanding spoken speech; associated with gross disorder of thought and expression.
  386. systematized delusion
    Group of elaborate delusions related to a single event or theme.
  387. tactile hallucination
    Hallucination primarily involving the sense of touch. Also called haptic hallucination.
  388. tangentiality
    Oblique, digressive, or even irrelevant manner of speech in which the central idea is not communicated.
  389. tension
    Physiological or psychic arousal, uneasiness, or pressure toward action; an unpleasurable alteration in mental or physical state that seeks relief through action.
  390. terminal insomnia
    Early morning awakening or waking up at least 2 hours before planning to wake up. Compare with initial insomnia and middle insomnia.
  391. thought broadcasting
    Feeling that one's thoughts are being broadcast or projected into the environment. See also thought withdrawal.
  392. thought disorder
    Any disturbance of thinking that affects language, communication, or thought content; the hallmark feature of schizophrenia. Manifestations range from simple blocking and mild circumstantiality to profound loosening of associations, incoherence, and delusions; characterized by a failure to follow semantic and syntactic rules that is inconsistent with the person's education, intelligence, or cultural background.
  393. thought insertion
    Delusion that thoughts are being implanted in one's mind by other people or forces.
  394. thought latency
    The period of time between a thought and its verbal expression. Increased in schizophrenia (see blocking) and decreased in mania (see pressured speech).
  395. thought withdrawal
    Delusion that one's thoughts are being removed from one's mind by other people or forces. See also thought broadcasting.
  396. tic disorders
    Predominantly psychogenic disorders characterized by involuntary, spasmodic, stereotyped movement of small groups of muscles; seen most predominantly in moments of stress or anxiety, rarely as a result of organic disease.
  397. tinnitus
    Noises in one or both ears, such as ringing, buzzing, or clicking; an adverse effect of some psychotropic drugs.
  398. tonic convulsion
    Convulsion in which the muscle contraction is sustained.
  399. trailing phenomenon
    Perceptual abnormality associated with hallucinogenic drugs in which moving objects are seen as a series of discrete and discontinuous images.
  400. trance
    Sleep-like state of reduced consciousness and activity.
  401. tremor
    Rhythmical alteration in movement, which is usually faster than one beat a second; typically, tremors decrease during periods of relaxation and sleep and increase during periods of anger and increased tension.
  402. true insight
    Understanding of the objective reality of a situation coupled with the motivational and emotional impetus to master the situation or change behavior.
  403. twilight state
    Disturbed consciousness with hallucinations.
  404. twirling
    Sign present in autistic children who continually rotate in the direction in which their head is turned.
  405. unconscious
    • (1) One of three divisions of Freud's topographic theory of the mind (the others being the conscious and the preconscious) in which the psychic material is not readily accessible to conscious awareness by ordinary means; its existence may be manifest in symptom formation, in dreams, or under the influence of drugs.
    • (2) In popular (but more ambiguous) usage, any mental material not in the immediate field of awareness.
    • (3) Denoting a state of unawareness, with lack of response to external stimuli, as in a coma.
  406. undoing
    Unconscious primitive defense mechanism, repetitive in nature, by which a person symbolically acts out in reverse something unacceptable that has already been done or against which the ego must defend itself; a form of magical expiatory action, commonly observed in OCD.
  407. unio mystica
    Feeling of mystic unity with an infinite power.
  408. vegetative signs
    In depression, denoting characteristic symptoms such as sleep disturbance (especially early morning awakening), decreased appetite, constipation, weight loss, and loss of sexual response.
  409. verbigeration
    Meaningless and stereotyped repetition of words or phrases, as seen in schizophrenia. Also called cataphasia. See also perseveration.
  410. vertigo
    Sensation that one or the world around one is spinning or revolving; a hallmark of vestibular dysfunction, not to be confused with dizziness.
  411. visual agnosia
    Inability to recognize objects or persons.
  412. visual amnesia
    See neurological amnesia.
  413. visual hallucination
    Hallucination primarily involving the sense of sight.
  414. waxy flexibility
    Condition in which a person maintains the body position into which they are placed. Also called catalepsy.
  415. word approximation
    Use of conventional words in an unconventional or inappropriate way (metonymy or of new words that are developed by conventional rules of word formation) (e.g., handshoes for gloves and time measure for clock); distinguished from a neologism, which is a new word whose derivation cannot be understood. See also paraphasia.
  416. word salad
    Incoherent, essentially incomprehensible, mixture of words and phrases commonly seen in far-advanced cases of schizophrenia. See also incoherence.
  417. xenophobia
    Abnormal fear of strangers.
  418. zoophobia
    Abnormal fear of animals.
Card Set
Signs and Symptoms