Sociology text

  1. Sociological perspective
    Seeing the general in the particular
  2. global perspective
    study of the larger world and our society's place in it
  3. positivism
    a way of understanding based on science
  4. Auguste Comte
    • - named socioloogy in 1838 to describe a new way of looking at society
    • - comte wanted to understand society as it reall is by using positivism
    • - karl marx and many later sociologists used sociology to try to make society better
  5. Theory
    statement of how and why specific facts are related
  6. theoretical approach
    basic image of society that guides thinking and research
  7. structural functional approach(macro) emile durkheim
    parts of society in temrs of the functiosn perform for the whole society , it assmps that teh various part of society have a common interest(overall health of society) which leads to teh criticism of S.F which is that it tends to be too conservative in that it tends to assume that if some strucutre in society exists then it must have a function. therefore it is desirable
  8. social conflict approach
    • (a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inquality that generates conflict and change)
    • -way society actually works, many gorups in society and they don't necessary have same interests, because powerful set of ideas actually holding the society together, masking the conflicts

    -based on faulty analogy, argues that society is actually made up fo groups of people who hav ediff interests, therefore it is a normal feature of society (your nose not in conflict with your ear)

    (criticism, S.F argues that S.C often advocates social change, S.F is eing political and therefore not scientific, , S.C throws exact argue back and they say S.F is political) (glass house don't throw stoen on someone's glass window or they may throw same stone back)

  9. symbolic interaction approach (micro) weber
    • studies how people innn everyday interaction construct reality,
    • - key assumption fo this is that people make sense of the world they experience by attaching symbolic meanings to teh object, to the relationships and to teh social situations that they encounter. these symbolic meanings are larned through social interaction and people react to the symbolic meansings rather than the objective features of what they encounter. (though ppl don't always attach same symbolic meanings to things, therefore behave diff to the same things.) (ex. john and doctor blood stain coat)
  10. culture
    - the ways of thinking(values=suntan, beliefs=rightwrong/abortion and symbols=stands for or preresents something else), the ways of acting(ex. putting on jacket of seat), and the material objects(keys) that together shape a people's way of life
  11. culture shock
    an experience when we enter an unfamililar culture and are not able to "read" meaning in our new surroundings
  12. nonmaterial culture
    the ideas created by members of a society
  13. material culture
    teh physical things created by members of a society
  14. cultural transmission
    the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
  15. Sapir-whrof thesis
    people percieve the wrold through the cultural lens of language
  16. values
    culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable good and beautiful and that serve as broad guildlines for social living
  17. beliefs
    specific statements that people hold to be true
  18. norms
    rules and expectations by which a society guides the behaviour of its members
  19. mores
    morns that are widely observed and have great moral significance
  20. folkways
    norms for routine or casual interaction
  21. social control
    attempts by others to regulate people's thoughs and behaviour
  22. ideal culture
    social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms
  23. real culture
    actual social patterns taht only approximate cultural expectations
  24. technology
    knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
  25. subculture
    • cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
    • - is a subset of a wider culture , there can be ethnic, occupational, regional subcultures, religous, class, commmon interests age,
    • TEACHER disagrees with text def because he doesn't like the SET APART but they are APART of societies population (chinese canadians are part of canadian population not set apart from it)
    • - ex. cockney rhming slang allows ppl to speak in diff language so police would not know ex. stairs = apples and pears or take the butcher's at that, -- > butchers hook = take a look at that
  26. eurocentrism
    tthe dominance of European cultural patterns
  27. cultural lag
    cultural elements changing at different rates, causing varioud egrees of disruption in cultural systems
  28. ethnocentrism
    • the practice of judging a another culture by the standards of one's own
    • - to be centered on your people and your people's culture to think taht your people culture is best and to judge other people's culture bus the standards of your own culture ex. eating raw fish, eaing it fry is better
  29. cultural relativism
    • the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
    • - to judge any particular culture relative to its own standards (good for ppl doing sociology)

  30. capitalists
    people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
  31. proletarians
    people who sell their labour for wages
  32. social institutions
    the major spheres of soical life or societal subsystems organized to meet human needs
  33. false consciousness
    marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society
  34. class conflict
    conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power
  35. class consciousness
    marx'st erm for workers' recognition sof themselves as a class unified in oppossition to capitalists and utlimately to capitalism itself
  36. alienation
    the experience of isolation and mistery resulting from powerlessness
  37. socialization
    the life long social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
  38. significant others
    people such as parents who have special importance for socialization
  39. anticipatory socialization
    learnings that helps a person achieve a desired position
  40. cohort
    a category of people with something in common, usualy their age
  41. example of resocializatoin: total institutions
    a setting in which people are isolated fromr est of society and mainulated by an administrative staff (prison, hospitals)
  42. resocialization
    efforts to effect radical chang ein an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the envirronment
  43. Rousseau (french revolution)
    • guy who made sociology start to grow out, he said that humans are born free but everywhere they are in chains
    • (ex of baby and how if it was switched the "rich" baby woul d be poor)
  44. A comte ( french revolution)
    enlightenme nt thicker, he said to get progress you need to understand how society wroks first, he argued taht before we can construct an ideal society we must understand how it works first. (ex. have a correct diagnosis at doctor they first have to diagonosis your problem before thinking of a solution)
  45. family functions
    • 1. reproduction
    • 2. sexual
    • 3. socialization
    • . economic
  46. biological analogy
    parts of the society can explain the function
  47. dysfunction
  48. ideology
    set of ideas that seems to explaina d justify certain social arrangements (ex. reincarnation,patriarchy,U.S have stronger nationalism, we are "murricans") it is stronger because it has more to hide, mor econflict of interests so you need stronger ideology
  49. symbol
    • teacher def = stands for or represents something else
    • text = carries a particular meanings recognizzed by people who share culture
  50. socilization
    the process of learning one's culture (ex. spitting, socialized)
  51. norms
    "ruels and expectations by which society guides the behaviour of its members, descriptions of what people "normally do"

    ex. bike ridingrules, implciit rules = rules you follow but can't relalys tate what you are doing) in society you follow norms in which some you are aware of but also what you arent' aware of

    ex. elevator norms (implicit)

    ex. culture change = internet, word knight
  52. gay subculture exampples
    • chickens - young teen boys
    • twinks = yougn gay guy
    • chicken hawk, older gay guy wh opraise on young teen boys
    • fruit flies = straight girls who hang out with gay guys
    • size queen = attracted to gay guys with large penis
  53. any spoken language is a system of symbols based on three types of shared rules
    • 1. rules about putting speech sounds of that language
    • 2. rules about putting speech sounds toegheter to make words
    • 3. wules about putting words toegether to make sentences
  54. 4 theorists: lenski
    • major changes in society due to changes in technology
    • 1. hunting and gathering = small groups, wild animal and plants
    • 2. horticulture = human muslce power and hand tools to grow domesticated plants = more social inequallity, mor esettled, mor epossessions
    • 3. pastorialism = types of land where it is too dry or in which soil is too poro for domestic plants so opssible for humans to live offff domesticated animals, goats, camels etc. limite dpossessions, tend to develop wararior culture
    • 4. agriculture = field forming, uses animal muslce powier as well as human to pull the plough, natural fertilizers, productive
    • 5. industralism = industrial society sues inanimate sources of power to drive machinery to make products in factories ex. coal
  55. marx
    the means of production , he argues taht those who control the means ofproduction may often have conflicts of interests with those who do not control the means of production , that what causes major changes ins ociety is often class conflict, and class conflict can cause alienation
  56. alienation 4 dimentsions
    • when people feel emotionally separated from or disconnected from what they are actually doing
    • 1. alienation from act of working
    • 2. from produce of work
    • 3. from other works
    • 4. from human potential
  57. anomie
    durkeims term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
  58. mechanical solidarity
    durkhiems term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values taht are strong among members of preindutrial societies (FEELINGS OF TOGETHERNESS BASED ON SAMENESS)
  59. organic solidarity
    durkheims term for social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence that are strong among members of indstrial societies (FEELINGS OF TOGETHERNESS BASED ON COMPLEMENTARY DIFFERENCES)
  60. division of labour
    specialized economic activity
  61. weber
    • type of society is due to its way of thinking, 2 types, symbolic interaction
    • -
    • Traditional: values and beliefs passed down from
    • generations

    • -
    • Rational: calculation of the most efficient ways
    • of completing a task

    • -
    • Protestantism was a new way of thinking that
    • started capitalism

    • -
    • Early protestants believed it was sin to spend
    • money on themselves

    • o
    • This led to them making money and instead of
    • spending on themselves they would spend on their business which made them
    • richer à
    • developed capitalism
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Sociology text