1. What is cancer?
    Uncontrolled cell proliferation that continues after the stimuli that initiated the new growth ceases; the spread of abnormal cells.
  2. Different types of cancer?
    malignant neoplasm, tumor, carcinoma, malignancy
  3. Benign vs. malignant tumor?
    • benign: does not invade and destroy adjacent normal tissue
    • malignant: locally invasive and destructive growth
  4. metastases?
    shifting of a disease from one part of the body to another
  5. primary vs secondary tumor?
    • primary: arises from cells that are normally localized to a given structure
    • secondary: arise from cells that have metastasized from another part of the body
  6. Cancer incidence?
    Second leading cause of death in the US, one of every four deaths. over 1,344,100 new cases in US yearly.
  7. Why is cancer screening so important?
    50% of all new cases can be detected with screening. 5 year survival surrently at 82%. with effective screening and early diagnosis, 5 year survival could improve to 95%.
  8. Cancer risk factors?
    • older than 40 (MOST important)
    • ethnicity (african american: 10% higher incidence and 30% higher death)
    • family history (1st generation)
    • obesity, diet, and exercise
    • hydration
    • oxidation
    • nitric oxide
  9. At what age are 77% of all cancers diagnosed
    age 55 or older
  10. lifetime cancer risk of males vs females?
    • men - 1 in 2
    • women - 1 in 3
  11. name the age related cancers.
    • Leukemia
    • cervical
    • breast
    • prostate
    • skin
    • colon
  12. Out of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors, which plays the biggest role?
    LIFESTYLE (ex: tobacco use, adlt diet, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol, job related factors, etc.)
  13. what could prevent 20% of all cancers?
    eating at least 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day
  14. specific risk factors for cancer?
    • smoking
    • HPV
    • adenomatous polups (colon cancer)
    • high dietary fat intake (prostate)
    • alcohol (breast, head or neck, GI)
    • work environment/occupation
  15. What is a carcinoma?
    From epithelial cells (breast, colon, lung, skin, and stomach)
  16. What is a glioma/neuroglioma/neuroblastoma?
    from nervous system tissues
  17. What is a Sarcoma?
    from connective tissue (muscle, bone, cartilage, synovium)
  18. What is a lymphoma?
    From lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes, spleen, intestinal tract)
  19. What is Leukemia?
    hematologic system (bone marrow: spreads by invastion and infiltration)
  20. What is multiple myeloma?
    arises from plasma cells
  21. Early warning signs of cancer?
    • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
    • A sore that does not heal in 6 weeks
    • Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
    • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
    • Obvious change in wart or mole
    • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  22. PT related signs of cancer?
    Proximal muscle weakness (tredelenburg, MMT, difficulty getting up from sitting and climbing stairs, respiratory muscle weakness) and a change in 1 or more DTR.
  23. What percent of newly diagnosed cases have detectable metastasis?
    30%, 30-40% of the rest of these clients harbor occult (hidden) metastasis
  24. When does metastatic spread occur?
    within 3-5 years of initial diagnosis and treatment
  25. How is metastatic spread oc cancer removed?
    it is not possible to effectively remove metastatic cancer by surgical intervention, thus use chemo
  26. 5 most common sites of metastasis?
    • lung (most common)
    • lymph nodes
    • liver
    • bone
    • brain
  27. Signs of lung metastasis?
    shortness of breath (dyspnea), pleural pain, and hemoptyosis (blood in sputum).

    Most initial pulmonary metastases are asymptomatic until tumor cells have obstructed bronchi or until the tumor mass is rubbing on the parietal pleura
  28. What is the most common tumor to metastasize to the CNS?
    lung cancer (breast and malignant melanoma also metastasize)
  29. what can metastases to the brain cause?
    increased intracranial pressure, mentation and cognitive impairments, sensory and motor function affected
  30. What can metastases to the spinal cord cause?
    cord compression, gradual onset of distal weakness and sensory changes
  31. Signs of CNS primary cancer and metastases?
    • confusion/increase confusion
    • depression
    • irritability
    • drowsiness/lethargy
    • blurred vision
    • headache
    • balance/coordination problems
    • weakness
    • change in memory
  32. signs of hepatic metastases (most ominous sign of advanced cancer, from stomach, colorectum, and pancreas):
    • general malaise
    • fatigue
    • anorexia
    • weight loss
    • early satiety
    • weakness
    • right upper abdominal pain and tenderness
    • ascites
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
  33. normal vs. metastatic lymphnode?
    normal nodes are soft and nonpalpable, nodes involved with metastatic cancer are hard (rubbery), fixed to the underlying tissue and painless. may see lymphatic dysfunction resulting in lymphedema.
  34. what are nodes involved in acute infection like?
    tender (painful) and enlarged
  35. Signs of bone metastases (from lung, breast, and prostate)?
    • Bone pain with weight bearing or deep/boring pain
    • hypercalcemia
    • muscle pain and weakness
    • pathologic fracture
  36. 4 common sites of bone metastases?
    • Vertebrae (thoracic most often) - 69%
    • pelvis - 41%
    • Posterior ribs - 25%
    • proximal femur - 25%
    • others: sternum, skull
  37. lytic?
    metastatic uterine cancer
  38. blastic?
    breast cancer
  39. cancer pain?
    most common symptom of cancer. Multifaceted. The characteristics of the pain depending upon the tissues involved. Pain may also result from the treatment interventions.
  40. What is a common cause of cancer pain?
    metastasis of cancer to bone (movement, weight bearing, and ambulation exacerbate the pain)
  41. Paraneoplastic syndromes?
    When tumors produce signs and symptoms at a site distant from the tumor or its metastasized site. These are not direct effects of either the tumor or its metastases.
  42. Example of paraneoplastic syndrom?
    small cell cancer of the lung produces ACTH which causes excessive secretion of cortisol resulting in Cushing's syndrome.
  43. Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndrome?
    fever, skin rash/pigmentation changes, clubbing of the fingers, arthralgias, paresthesia, proximal muscle weakness, anorexia, malaise, weight loss, signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, change in DTRs
  44. Curative vs palliative cancer treatments?
    • curative: intent to cure
    • palliative: provide symptom relief but does not cure
  45. Therapies as cancer treatment?
    surgery, radiation, chemo, biotherapy (immuno), angiogenesis therapy, and hormonal therapy.
  46. When is surgery used with cancer?
    • Typically used in combination with other therapies.
    • used for tumor biopsy and tumor removal/surgery for palliatice relief of pain. Also used to correct obstruction or alleciate pressure (debulk tumor)
  47. What does radiation do for cancer?
    destroys rapidly dividing cancer cells by destroying the hydrogen bonds between DNA strands. Can include external beam radiation or intracavity and interstitial implants (pellets). tnd to focus on a specific location. Typically normal cells recovery from raiation exposure faster than malignant cells.
  48. What does biotherpy do to combat cancer?
    strengthen the host's biologic response to the tumor cells and promote immunological attack (interferons direct antitumor effect and interleukin-2 triggers the immune attack)
  49. in biotherapy, what dies bone marrow and stem cell transplantation do?
    remediate the radiation/chemo induced destruction of the bone marrow
  50. What are monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) used for?
    to target specific cancers while leaving the normal cells alone.
  51. antiangiogenic therapy?
    thalidomide, used in the past as a sedative, has strong antiangiogenic properties - starving the tumor of its blood supply, thus slowing tumor growth
  52. Hormonal therapy for cancer?
    used for cancers that exhibit hormone sensitivity. Tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, is used in certain forms of breast cancer, blocking the estrogen receptors in breast tumor cells that require estrogen to thrive.
  53. myelosuppression?
    destruction of bone marrow so diminished blood clotting, diminished immune function, anemia
  54. postsurgical problems?
    contractures, sensory loss, pain, fatigue, DVT, lymphedema
  55. what could metastatic diseases in boes result in?
    increased risk of bone fractures and osteoporosis
  56. What should PTs monitor with cancer patients?
    laboratory values and vital signs, observing for signs of infection, bleeding, or arrhythmias
  57. What should people with cancer not be treated with?
    electrical or deep-heating (ultrasound, diathermy) agents and NO heat modalities with radiation patients (tends to enhance the effect of radiation)
  58. chemotherapy and exercise?
    do not exercise within 2 hrs of receiving radiation or chemo.
  59. contraindications of exercise with cancer patients?
    • platelets < 50,000/ml
    • hemoglobin < 10g/dl
    • white blood cell count <3000/ml
    • absolute granulocytes <500/ml
    • winningham
  60. positives of physical activity for cancer patients?
    improves energy level, reduces fatigue, reduces nausea, increase muscle mass, and increase daily activities without increasing fatigue
  61. What must PTs monitor during cancer patient exercises?
    oxygen saturation, monitor HR, BP, Breathing frequency, and perceived exertion (borg scale)
Card Set
Oncology lecture - look at side effects slide also