Exam 1: Spinal Cord

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  1. How long is the vertebral canal in an adult?
    extends from the foramen magnum to L2 vertebra
  2. How long is the vertebral canal in a smal child?
    extends to L3 vertebra
  3. How long is the vertebral canal in a 3-month old fetus?
    extends to the coccyx
  4. Which grows faster, the vertebral column or the spinal cord?
    vertebral column
  5. What is the length of the spinal cord in the adult?
    18 inches (45cm)
  6. Name the enlargements of the spinal cord?
    cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement
  7. What is the purpose of the cervical enlargement?
    provide origin for nerves to upper extremity (has larger anterior horns)
  8. What is the purpose of the lumbar enlargement?
    provides origin for nerves to lower extremity
  9. What type of neurons originate in the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord?
    motor neurons
  10. How many types of nerve rootlets are there?
  11. How do nerve rootlets get their name?
    named according to their relative positions
  12. What are the 2 types of nerve rootlets?
    • dorsal (posterior) rootlets
    • ventral (anterior) rootlets
  13. The dorsal rootlets form:
    dorsal nerve root
  14. The ventral rootlets form:
    ventral nerve root
  15. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots merge to form:
    spinal N
  16. conus medularis=
    • the end of the spinal cord
    • termination of spinal cord
  17. cauda equina:
    collection of nerve roots streaming inferiorly below the conus medularis
  18. Where is the pia mater located?
    • it is the most intimate covering of the spinal cord
    • forms outer layer of spinal cord
  19. filum terminale
    formed by pia mater at inferior limit of spinal cord
  20. denticulate ligaments
    lateral extensions of pia mater which attach to inner surface of dura mater
  21. What is the function of denticulate ligaments?
    anchor spinal cord to the dura mater
  22. How many layers of tissue does the arachnoid membrane have?
  23. What is the texture of the outer layer of the arachnoid membrane?
  24. Where is the outer layer of the arachnoid membrane?
    in physical contact with the dura mater
  25. Describe the inner layer of the arachnoid membrane:
    gives rise to fibers that pass to the pia mater, thereby transversing the subarachnoid space
  26. Where does the arachnoid membrane extend to?
    the level of S2 vertebra
  27. Where is the subarachnoid space?
    between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater
  28. What is the subarachnoid space filled with?
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  29. Where can a needle be inserted to gain a sample of CSF?
    between L4/L5 or L5/S1 vertebra
  30. What is the length of the subarachnoid space?
    • extends from the cranial cavity to level of S2 vertebra
    • continuous with cranial subarachnoid space
  31. How far does the dura mater extend?
    • continuous with cranial dura mater
    • extends to level of S2 vertebra
  32. What is the dura mater composed of?
    tough collangenous tissue
  33. Is there a subdural space?
    • in pathological situations the dura mater can be separated from the arachnoid membrane by fluid or tumor tissue
    • subdural space is normally a "potential space" --since the dura mater is normally in contact with the arachnoid membrane no space is present
  34. How far does the subdural space extend?
    to the level of S2 vertebra
  35. How far does the epidural space extend?
    from foramen magnum to sacrum (sacral canal)
  36. Where is the epidural space located?
    between spinal dura mater and vertebral canal
  37. What is contained in the epidural space?
    blood vessels (internal vertebral venous plexus), fat, fatty connective tissue
  38. What is the epidural space good for?
    • regional anesthesia such as an "epidural"
    • NN absorb and relieves pain
  39. How many spinal nerves are there?
    31 pairs
  40. How many cervical spinal nerves?
  41. How many thoracic spinal nerves?
  42. How many lumbar spinal nerves?
  43. How many sacral spinal nerves?
  44. How many coccygeal spinal nerves?
  45. One pair of spinal nerves corresponds to...
    one spinal cord level, from which it originates
  46. What is a dermatome?
    an area of skin innervated by one pair of spinal nerves
  47. What forms the anterior spinal artery?
    union of two anterior spinal branches of the two vertebral AA
  48. How far does the anterior spinal artery descend?
    to the conus medullaris
  49. Posterior spinal arteries (L/R) are branches of:
    vertebral arteries
  50. Which is smaller? posterior spinal arteries or anterior spinal artery?
    posterior spinal arteries
  51. How do segmental spinal arteries enter the vertebral canal?
    intervertebral foramen
  52. The cervical branches of the segmental spinal arteries orginate from:
    vertebral arteries, thyrocervical trunk and costocervical trunk
  53. Where do the thoracic branches of the segmental spinal arteries come from?
    posterior intercostal arteries
  54. Where do the lumbar branches of the segmental spinal arteries come from?
    lumbar arteries
  55. What do the segmental arteries supply?
    • vertebrae
    • intervertebral discs
    • contents of epidural space
    • dura mater
    • spinal cord
    • contents of vertebral canal
  56. Which side of the body is the Artery of Adamkiewicz on?
  57. What is the Artery of Adamkiewicz also known by?
    greater anterior medullary A
  58. What does the artery of Adamkiewicz do?
    reinforces circulation to lumbar enlargement of spinal cord
  59. What artery does the artery of Adamkiewicz anastomosis with?
    anterior spinal A
  60. Where does the artery of Adamkiewicz come from?
    thoracic aorta
  61. Where does the spinal cord drain blood to?
    a venous plexus (network) on the surface of the spinal cord
  62. Where is the spinal venous plexus located?
    in the subarachnoid space
  63. What do the surface venous plexus connect to?
    internal vertebral plexus
  64. Where are internal vertebral plexus located?
    epidural space
  65. Where do the internal vertebral plexus drain to?
    intervertebral veins
  66. Where do the intervertebral veins drain?
    to the external vertebral plexus
  67. Where are the external vertebral plexus?
    surrounds vertebral column
  68. External vertebral plexus receive blood from:
    internal venous plexus
  69. Do the vertebral venous plexuses hae functional valves?
  70. What does it mean for the vertebral venous plexuses to have no functional valves?
    blood can flow in any direction as influenced by gravity
  71. What are included in Batson's veins?
    • external and internal vertebral venous plexuses
    • connects cranial cavity with venous plexuses in the pelvic cavity
  72. Since there are no valves in the vertebral plexuses, what could happen with metastatic cells originating in the pelvic region?
    They can travel to the cranial cavity where secondary malignant tumors can develop
  73. What is the dorsal root ganglion?
    collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
  74. The dorsal nerve root of the spinal cord has what kind of neurons?
  75. The ventral nerve root of the spinal cord has what kind of neurons?
  76. The dorsal and ventral primary rami have what kind of neurons?
    both sensory and motor
  77. Soma
    skin, skeletal muscle, and bone
  78. somatic neurons
  79. afferent neurons
    sensory from soma TO spinal cord
  80. Efferent neurons
    motor FROM spinal cord to skeletal muscles
  81. General Somatic Afferent detects:
    touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
  82. In the General Somatic Afferent, information goes to:
    spinal cord and then brain
  83. General Somatic Efferent information goes to:
    skeletal muscles
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Exam 1: Spinal Cord
Review of 6/5 lecture on the spinal cord for anatomy exam 1
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