What is reabsorbed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?
Na+, nutrients, glucose, and ions.
What is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle?
H2O is reabsorbed.
What is reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule.
What is reabsorbed in the collection duct?
What permits selective filtration of blood?
What structure permits selective filtration?
Podocytes, which are finger like structures, only molecules that fit through the slits; could become waste.
If rbc are found in the kidney track, what could this indicate?
Abnormal filtration in the kidney.
The Renal corpusle is composed of
The glomerulus and capsule in a kidney section.
A decrease in blood pressure is sensed by what special cell? Where is it located?
The Juxtagolmerular with the macula densa located in the kidney senses decreased blood pressure.
What is effects does the Juxtagolmerular Appratus do?
- Increases sypathetic system, which increase HR & BP
- Increases H20 retentaion in the kidney
- Releases aldostrone in kidney to increase h20 retentation
- Vasoconstriction, which increases BP
Name the digestive track
oral cavity to esophagus, to stomach, to small and large intestines, and rectum.
Name the accessory organs.
- Liver and gallbladder
What is the difference between ingestion and digestion?
Ingestion is the intake of food into the body.
Digestion is the chemical or mechnically breakdown of food.
Name the two types of Nutrients.
Micronutrients (H20 and ions)
Macronutrients (Proteins, lipids, and Carbohydrates)
What is the specific enzyme found in saliva?
This enzyme only breakdown carbohydrates and lubricate the food for swallowing.
What is food digested in the oral cavity called?
What prevents food from entering the trachea?
A cartilage flap located on top of the trachea, which prevents food from getting into the airway during swallowing.
What is peristalsis?
Contraction of the smooth muscle wall of the esophagus, while moving the bolus down the stomach.
What are the three glands that help produce saliva in the oral cavity?
- The submandibular
- The sublingual
- The parotid
What type of digestion occures in the stomach?
Chemical and mechanical digestions occur in the stomach.
Name the two parts of the stomach
The fundus and body
What three types of cells are found in the stomach and what do they produce?
- 1. Chief cells produce pepsinogen
- 2. Parietal cells produces HCL
- 3. Goblet cells produce mucus with protect the inner stomach wall
HCL is needed to activate pepsinogen into pepsin, an enzyme that breaksdown proteins
What prevents HCL from entering the adjacent organs?
The esophageal sphincter and pyloric sphincter
What compose gastric juices?
HCL and pepsin
Which is the first site of absorption?
The small intenstine
What are the three structures within the small intenstine?
- 1. Villa, which increase absorption of nutrients
- 2. Microvillis, same as villa
- 3. Lacteal vessels which contain WBC
Name the 3 sections of the small intenstine?
- Duodenum - mostly digestions
- Jejunum - absorption of nutrients and water
- ielum - same as jejunum
What two accessory organs enzymes help breakdown chyme (food) in the small intenstine?
an enzyme from the pancreas, which breaksdown lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates and
Bile from the liver, stored in the gallbladder, that help breakdown lipids.
What is the function of the large intenstine (colon)?
- 1. Stores undigested solids (fiber)
- 2. Absorption of water and vitamins
- 3. E. coli is the main bacteria w/i the colon. It produces vitamins K & B. The by products are gases released from the large intenstine.
What is the release point of solid, stored waste?
The rectum, the large portion of the colon.
What are pancreas juices?
Hormones: Insulin, Glucagon,
- Enzymes: trypsin and chymotrypsin (breakdown proteins)
- and amylase (breakdowns carbohydrates).
- Note: chyme is broken down by the trypsin the active form of CHYMOtrypsin.
- Buffers: to neutrizle acids or bases.
What is the function of the pancreas?
- a. Controls glucose levels in the blood
- b. Produces digestive enzymes that are released into the 1st portion of the small intenstine.
If sugar is high, how does the pancreas react?
It releases insulin, which promotes storage of glucose called glycogen, a solid form, stored in the muscles.
If sugar is low, what does the pancreas do?
It releases glucagon, which promotes the breakdown of glycogen into glycose.
What is bile and where is found and stored?
Bile helps breakdown lipids. It is found in the liver and gallbladder. The gallbladder is where bile is stored up.
What is heartburn or acid reflux?
The backflow of HCL into the esophagus.
What is an ulcer?
Inflammation of the interwall of the stomach that cause a lose of mucus covering, which causes acid burn on the stomach wall.
What is appendicitis?
Inflamation of the appendix.
What are gall stones?
an accumulaion of hardened cholesterol and or calcium deposits into the gallbladder.
Name to two parts of the nervous system.
The Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord
The Perephial nervous system (PNS): branching out of the CNS
Name the parts of the functional nervous unit.
The neuron which is composed of the following:
- axon hillock
- presynaptic bulb
How do cells activate one another?
One way is via chemical signals which either (1) interact with a target cell at the cell membrane or (2) interact with a target cell by passing directly into the cell.
What controls the release of hormones?
The hypothalmus via the pitutary gland.
Name the two types of glands and how they differ.
The two types are exocrine and endocrine.
In exo the chem. message goes 1st thru a duct. In endo the chem. message goes directly into the blood.
Name the four classes of hormones
- 1. Peptide
- 2. Steroids
- 3. Amine
- 4. Eicosanoids
Describe the charactistics of Peptide hormone
Example is Insulin
a large, hydrophillic molecule that bonds to the cell membrane to modify protein synthesis
Describe the charactistics of Steroid devired hormones.
Example: Estradiol or testosterone
A small hydrophobic, and therefore requiring a carrier to the cell membrane, but easily passing into the cell to effect protein synthesis.
Describe the charactistics of Amine hormones.
a large, hydrophillic molecule that bonds to the cell membrance to modify proteins synthesis, made of a single amino acid chain.
Describe the charactistics of an eicosanoid hormone.
Large molecules, made of fatty acids, bind to receptors on the plasma membrane to modify protien synthesis. Involved in inflammatory responses.
Name the nine Endocrine Glands in the human body.
- Pituitary Gland
- Pineal Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid gland
- Gonads (Ovaries or testes)
- Adrenal Gland
What hormones are released from the anterior Pituitary Gland?
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, targets the thyroid, synthesis & release
Growth Hormone, many tissues, causes growth
Adrenocorticotropin, targets the Adrenal Contex, causes cortisol
Prolactin, targets the breasts, causes milk production
Follicle, targets the gonads, causes egg/sperm production
Luteinizing, targets the gonads, causes estrogen/testosterone
What hormones are released fromt he posterior pituitary gland?
Antidiuretic Hormone, target the kidney, causes h20 retentions
Oxytocin Hormone, targets the uterus, causes contraction of the uterin wal.
What is negative feedback loop? Give an example.
negative feedback loop helps the body obtain homostatics. Example low calcium will casuse the PTH to be released, which effects osetoclast to breakdown bone and release calcium into the body. Once to much has been released, the negative feedback, the thyroid releases calcitonin to stiop osetoclast.
What is the difference between the nervous system and endocrine system?
Nervous system is fast and one way
Endocrine system is slow and spreads throughout the body
What hormone does the Adrenal cortex/medulla release?
- Cortex = glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatories)
- Medulla = adrelanine
What hormone does the pineal gland release?
melatonin - cicardian rhythm
What two hormones does the pancreas release?
Alpha, which is glucagon
What causes acromegaly?
- pituitary cancer which produces high levels of growth hormone.
- weak muscles due to excess salt, uneven bone growth and swelling of the myelin sheaths.
What causes cushing syndrome?
High levels of cortisol produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
What is the difference between hypo/hyper thyrodism?
Hypo = thin brittle nails, weigh gain, feeling cold
hyper = hair losss, hi HR, hi bowel movement, feeling anxious, weight loss
What are the causes of type 1 & 2 diabetes?
1 = beta cells are destoryed in the body, no insulin then produced.
2 = hereditary, the patient becomes insulin resistant.
What hormone is released by adipose tissue?
Leptin, triggers secretion of fat stores which suppress appetite.
What hormone is released by the stomach?
Gastrin hormone, triggered by bolus, causes HCL to be released.
What hormone is released by the duodenum?
Intestinal gastrin, in respones to chyme
What hormone is released by the heart?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), in response to stretching of the atria, which inhibits renin, aldosterone.
What two hormones does the kidney release?
1. erythropoietin in response to low oxygen, stimulate RBC production