PSY 430 exam 2 - CH 4

  1. Germinal Period
    0-2 weeks after conception: rapid cell division and cell differentiation
  2. Embryonic Period
    3-8 weeks after conception: all body structures (inc. internal organs) begin to develop
  3. Fetal Period
    9 weeks after conception - birth: organs (except for reproductive system) grow in size and mature in functioning
  4. Blastocyst
    a cell mass that develops from the zygote in the few days after conception
  5. Proximodistal
    (prenatal) spine develops 1st and then the limbs develop later

    Near - Far (spine outward)
  6. Cephalocaudal
    head - tail
  7. Spinal Cord
    begins to develop in the neural tube
  8. Lungs
    last organ to develop
  9. 3rd Month
    month where

    - fetus has all its body parts

    - weighs approx 3oz, and is about 3in long

    - growth is very rapid, but there is considerable variations from fetus to fetus (esp. in weight)
  10. 4th, 5th, 6th Month
    Month(s) where:

    - heartbeat becomes stronger

    - cardiovascular system becomes more active

    - brain increases about 6x in size
  11. Final 3 months
    month(s) where:

    • - brainwaves indicate responsiveness
    • - lungs function and use amniotic fluid instead of air
    • - heart valves, arteries, and veins circulate the fetal blood
  12. Circulatory System
    1st fully functioning system
  13. Placenta
    the organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord.

    attached to the wall of the pregnant woman's uterus
  14. Implantation
    the process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop
  15. Embryo
    the name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception
  16. Fetus
    the name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth
  17. Age of Visibility
    the age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available
  18. Teratogens
    agents and conditions, inc. viruses, drugs, and chemicals that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects/death
  19. Behavioral Teratogens
    agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning
  20. Teratology
    the study of birth defects - science of risk analysis
  21. Risk Analysis
    the science of weighing the potential effects of a particular event, substance, or experience to determine the liklihood of harm (to an embryo/fetus)

    • - timing
    • - dose
    • - frequency
  22. Threshold Effect
    a situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level
  23. Interaction Effect
    the result of a combination of teratogens.

    Sometimes the risk of harm is greatly magnified when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more thanone teratogen at the same time

    in effect - the threshold of each drug is lowered
  24. Fetal Alcohol Syndrom (FAS)
    a cluster of birth defects, inc. abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, that may occur in the child of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant
  25. Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)
    a condition in which a child has been exposed to alcohol before birth and has some signs of fetal alcohol syndrome, inc. emotional and cognitive problems, but does not meet all the necessary criteria to be diagnosed with tht disorder
  26. Sonogram
    an image of an unborn fetus (or internal organ) produced by using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound)
  27. Apgar Scale
    a quick assessment of a newborn's functioning

    • - baby's color
    • - heart rate
    • - reflexes
    • - muscle tone
    • - respiratory effort

    • given a 0,1,2 for a perfect score = 10
    • 7 is average
  28. Cesarean Section
    (31%) a surgical birth, in which incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly
  29. Doula
    a woman who helps with the birth process - does NOT deliver
  30. Anoxia
    "no oxygen"

    a lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage or death to the baby
  31. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    flu virus rampant in pre-schools

    • causes:
    • - retardation
    • - hearing loss
  32. poor nutrition
    low birthweight in teen pregnancies due to . . .
  33. Cerebral Palsy
    a disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers.

    person has difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and body movements are impaired
  34. Low Birthweight (LBW)
    a body weight at birth of 3.5 - 5.5 lbs
  35. Very Low Birthweight (VLBW)
    a body weight at birth of 2 - 3.5lbs
  36. Extremely Low Birthweight
    a body weight at birth of less than 2 lbs
  37. Preterm Birth
    a birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy have elapsed
  38. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)
    baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception
  39. Kangaroo Care
    a form of child care in which the mother of a low-birthweight infant spends at least an hour a day holding the baby between her breasts
  40. Parental Alliance
    cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children

    the parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles
  41. Postpartum Depression
    a new mother's feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth

    • - irritability
    • - eating disorders
    • - sadness
    • - feeling overwhelmed and inadequate
  42. Parent-Infant Bond
    the strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn
Card Set
PSY 430 exam 2 - CH 4
CH 4 Prenatal Development and Birth