Ch.2 Vocab Psych

  1. Afferent Nerves
    Sensory nerves that transport information to the brain
  2. Efferent Nerves
    Motor nerves that control the brain's output
  3. Central Nervous System
    The brain and spinal cord
  4. Peripheral Nervous System
    • The network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
    • Divided into:
    • -somatic nervous system
    • -autonomic nervous system
  5. Somatic Nervous System
    • Division of peripheral nervous system
    • Consists of sensory nerves
    • Conveys info to central nervous system & motor nerves, who transmits that info to the muscles
  6. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Division of peripheral nervous system
    • Communicates with the body's internal organs
    • Made up of:
    • -sympathetic nervous system
    • -parasympathetic nervous system
  7. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Division of autonomic nervous system
    • Arouses the body
  8. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Division of autonomic nervous system
    • Calms the body
  9. Neuron
    • Nerve cell that specializes in processing information
    • Basic units of the nervous system
  10. Cell Body
    Part of the neuron that contains the nucleas, directs manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance
  11. Dendrites
    Branches of a neuron that recieve and orient info towards the cell body; most neurons have numerous dendrites
  12. Axon
    The part of the neuron that carries info away from the cell body to other cells; each neuron only has one axon
  13. Gilal Cells
    Provide support & nutritional benefits in the nervous system
  14. Myelin Sheath
    A layer of fat cells that encases & insulates most axons, speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses
  15. Synapses
    Tiny junctions between two neurons, generally where the axon of one neuron meets the dendrites or cell body of another neuron
  16. Neurotransmitters
    Chemicals that carry info across the synpatic gap from one neuron to the next
  17. Hindbrain
    Lowest part of the brain, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum and pons
  18. Brain Stem
    The region of the brain that includes most of the hindbrain (excluding the cerebellum) and the midbrain
  19. Midbrain
    Located between the hindbrain and the forebrain, where many nerve-fiber systems ascend & descend to connect the higher & lower portions of the brain
  20. Forebrain
    • The highest level of the brain.
    • Key structures :
    • -limbic system
    • -thalamus
    • -basal ganglia
    • -hypothalamus
    • -cerebral cortex
  21. Limbic System
    • Closely connected network of structures, including hippocampus & the amygdala
    • Play important roles in memory and emotion
  22. Amygdala
    • Part of limbic system
    • Plays a key role in emotions, fear, and pleasure
  23. Hippocampus
    • Part of limbic system
    • Plays part in memory & navigation
  24. Thalamus
    • Forebrain structure that functions as a relay station to sort input & directs it to different areas of the cerebral cortex
    • Also ties to the reticular formation
  25. Basal Ganglia
    • Located above thalamus & under the cerebral cortex
    • Large clusters of neurons work together with the cerebellum & the cerebral cortex to control & coordinate voluntary movements
  26. Hypothalamus
    Forebrain structure involved in regulating eating, drinking, and sex; directing the endocrine system through the pituitary gland; and monitoring emotion, stress, and reward
  27. Cerebral Cortex
    Highest level of the forebrain, where highest mental fucntions ( thinking/planning ) take place
  28. Corpus Callosum
    Large bundle of axons that connect the brain's two hemispheres
  29. Frontal Lobe
    The part of the cerebral cortex that just behind the forhead that is involved in the control of voluntary muscles, intelligence, and personality
  30. Parietal Lobe
    • Area of the cerebral cortex at the top of the head that is involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control
    • Sensory cortex area that processes information about body sensations
  31. Occipital Lobe
    The part of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head that is involved with vision
  32. Temporal Lobe
    The portion of the cerebral cortex just above the ears that is involved in hearing, language processing, and memory
Card Set
Ch.2 Vocab Psych
Chapter 2 Key Terms