Sociology- Religion 1

  1. Definition types of Religion
    1. ?
    2. ?
    3. ?
    • 1. Substantive
    • 2. Functional
    • 3. Social Constructionist
  2. Theories of Ideology
    1. Key Person.. ?
    2. Definition.. ?
    1. Antoine Destutt de Tracey

    • 2. a. A set of political beliefs
    • b. Ideas and beliefs of a particular social class
    • c. Dominant beliefs of the ruling class
    • d. Official beliefs of a political system in a totalitarian manner (HILTER)
  3. Theories of Ideology
    1. Marxist Veiw - key person?
    2. Word used to describe dominating ideas? and definition
    3. KEY QUOTE
    4. Name of his argument?
    • 1. Gramsci
    • 2. Hegemony - The domination of one group over an other, a set of ideas that may be used to seem ligitimate and discredit all altenatives.

    3. "The ruling class not only justifies and maintians its dominance, but manages to maintain the active consent of those over whom it rules"

    4. Proletariat hegemony
  4. Theories of Ideology
    1. Key Neo-Marxist?
    2. His Key Term?
    3. Definition?
    1. Althusser

    2. Ideological State Apparatus (ISA)

    3. The tools (education system, media, religion) used to keep people in their social class and enforce beliefs.
  5. Theories of Ideology
    1. Who defined TWO types of IDEOLOGY?
    2. Definition - TYPE 1
    Definition - TYPE 2
    1. Mannheim

    2. TYPE 1- A set of beliefs used to justify and continue ideas

    TYPE 2 - A Utopian set of beliefs that COULD be organised in the future (put forward by oppressed groups that want to make radical change)
  6. Theories of Science
    The Traditional View of Science
    2. ?
    • 1. Science is objective - the scientist is neutral
    • 2. Scientific enquiry is evidence based - Conclusions are based of evidence and are not preconcieved ideas.
    • 3. Scientific enquirey is 'open'
  7. Theories of Science
    Traditional Views of science - CHALLENGED
    1. Who challenged traditional view?
    2. Two key arguments he gave.
    a. ?
    b. ?
    • 1. Michael Lynch
    • 2.
    • a) Scientists are more influenced by existing theories that may have been expected.

    b) When 'anomalies' occurred - scientists gennerally put them down as errors rather than seeing them as evidence towards are new theory or hypothesis.
  8. Theories of Science
    1.Science can be viewed as a belief system like religion - WHO?
    2. Belief system is made up of three factors...
    • 1. Polanyi
    • 2... Three factors

    1) Circularity of beliefs - If one belief is challenged it is defended by reference to another in order to avoid change in the belief system.

    2) Supporting explainations are given for difficult situations. If any evidence is shown to contradict the belief there will be a reason to explain it.

    3) No alternative belief system can be tolerated - A sweeping rejection of religion can be seen as an example of this.
  9. Theories of Science
    Sociology can be treated as a science
    1. The positivist ________ claimed that by using the technique of ________ ________, 'social facts' could be uncovered.
    2. Define this technique?
    3. Give example
    4. What is an Inductive Approach? and this proves... ?
    • 1. Durkheim ,
    • Multivariate Analysis
    • 2. When you ISOLATE the IMPACT of the independent variables on the dependant variables.
    • 3. Dependant variables- Achievement of working class
    • Independant Variable - Material deprivation, teacher labelling etc.

    4. An inductive approach - Information is collected, Studied and analysed, Theories and hypothesese are drawn, These are tested and when proved (through repetition) They can be regarded as SOCIAL LAW / FACT.
  10. Theories of Science
    1.Deductive apprach .. definition?
    2. Key Thinker?
    3. His arguments against Inductive Approach
    1. ?
    2.? (example)
    3. ?
    1. Reverse of inductive; starts with theory which then leads to investigation

    • 2. Popper
    • 3.
    • 1) Rejected idea of permanent social laws - any law law could be FALSIFIED nomatter how many times proved wrong

    2. "All swans are white" - proved right until you find a black one!

    3. The aim of science is to falsify its own theories. This "falsification" of theories is what makes science different from religion.
  11. Theories of Science
    Scientist work should be viewed in its social context
    1. Key thinker?
    2. Summary of beliefs
    3. example?
    • 1. GOMM
    • 2. Summary - Scientists produce theories as a product of social context and try to prove rather than falsify their theories

    3. Example - Gomm said that Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest" slotted neatly into the Victorian Capitalist Ideology of free market economics, individualism etc.
  12. Theories of Science
    1. Science is NOT objective ... WHO?
    2. Key Points...
    1) ?
    2. ?
    3. ?
    • 1. Kuhn
    • 2.
    • 1) Scientists work within a paradigm (a frame of accepted ideas)

    2) They only seek evidence to support their theories

    3) However, anomolies will become so strong that they trigger a piradigm shift or scientific revolution.
  13. Theories of Religion
    Karl Marx summarised the function of religion in society
    1. ?
    2. ?
    3. ?
    1. In capitalist society, ruling class exploite working class in order to gain profit.

    2. Due to false conciousness (Not aware of the unfairness of society) the working class to not unite and overthrow the ruling class.

    3. "Religion is the opium of the people." It dulls the pain of oppression but does not take it away.
  14. Theories of Religion
    According to Marx, how is religion used to justify inequality?
    1. ?
    2. ?
    3. ?
    1. People look forward to Heaven so they don't break the rules

    2. Religion consoles people so they put up with suffering

    3. People don't balme capitalism for their position in society - it was God's will.

    4. God could change things but he doesn't, so it's meant to be.
  15. Theories of Religion
    1. Criticisms of Marxist View
    1. People don't go to church so its hard for them to be duped with religious ideology.
  16. Theories of Religion
    Name the four Functionalists who summarise the role of Religion
    • 1. Durkheim
    • 2 Malinowski
    • 3. Parsons
    • 4. Bella
  17. Theories of Religion
    1. Summary of view on religion

    1) Durkheim... ?
    2) Malinowski.. ?
    3)Parsons.. ?
    4)Bellah.. ?
    1. Religion is something which inhibits change and keeps society as it is. - This is positive which creates social order based on value consensus.

    • 2.
    • 1)Durkheim.
    • Aboriginal society. Worship of totems = worshipping society itself. Sacred religious worship encourages shared values.

    • 2). Malinowski.
    • Religion helps us deal with emotional stress that threaten social order. Stressful events create disruption but religion promotes stability.

    3). Parsons - religion provides guidelines for human actions in terms of core values.

    4). Bellah - CIVIL RELIGION. Non-religious symbols and rituals create social cohesion. Flags, political figues, royal deaths generate a mutual feeling or order and stability.
  18. Theories of Religion
    However, Religion can provoke change, also for the good.
    1. WHO?
    2. Examples ...
    1) ?
    2.) ?
    3. KEY TERM and definition
    • 1. ENGELS
    • 2. examples

    1) Jesus himself encouraged social change

    2) Martin Luther King and Southern Baptist Church used religion to enforce to views on rights of Blacks.

    3. LIBERATION THEOLOGY - using religion to free people from oppression (usually revolutionary)
  19. Theories of Religion
    Religion and a Capitalist Work Ethic
    1. WHO?
    2. Religious sect he studied in relation to Capitalism?
    3. Two points he noticed in this sect which contributed to Capitialism
    • 1. WEBER
    • 2. Calvinism

    • 3.
    • 1) Predestination - A few people have been chosen to go to Heaven, this is preplanned by God which made people anxious.

    2) Ascetic Ideal - People than worked hard in hope that success was a sign that you were headed for Heaven.
  20. Theories of Religion
    Religion and Capitalist Work Ethic
    1. Who?
    2. His point?
    • 1. Eisenstadt
    • 2. Capitalism occured in Catholic countries like Italy before the Protestant Reformation happened and before Calvinism.
  21. Theories of Religion
    Key views of sexism in religion
    1. ?
    5.? WHO
    • 1. Women have an important role to reproduce children and teach them the way of God - this traps them in traditional roles.
    • 2. Because women are sexually attractive they are percieved as distractions from worship. Roman Catholic priests are therefore celebate - women are temptresses.

    3. Feminists say the religious texts transmit messages to readers to uphold a patriarchal society.

    4. Women are excluded from power in many religions

    5. Simone de Beauvoir saw reliogion as oppressive to women - Marxist view - swap 'working class' for 'women' - same argument.
  22. Theories of Religion
    1. Women are not passive victims of religious oppression - they may actively resist it.

    2. Religion isn't always patriarchal, for example veiling can have benifits as women don't get sexually harrassed in public.

    3. Patriarchy can be transmitted by other social institutions, not just religion.
Card Set
Sociology- Religion 1
Theories of Religion, Science and Ideology Overview