Holly's Sociology - Religion

  1. Theories of Ideology Has this synced?
    1. Key Person.. ?
    2. Definition.. ?
    • 1. Antoine Destutt de Tracey
    • 2. a. A set of political beliefs
    • b. Ideas and beliefs of a particular social class
    • c. Dominant beliefs of the ruling class
    • d. Official beliefs of a political system in a totalitarian manner (HILTER)
  2. Theories of Ideology
    1. Marxist Veiw - key person?
    2. Word used to describe dominating ideas? and definition
    3. KEY QUOTE
    4. Name of his argument?
    • 1. Gramsci
    • 2. Hegemony - The domination of one group over an other, a set of ideas that may be used to seem ligitimate and discredit all altenatives.
    • 3. "The ruling class not only justifies and maintians its dominance, but manages to maintain the active consent of those over whom it rules"
    • 4. Proletariat hegemony
  3. Theories of Ideology
    1. Key Neo-Marxist?
    2. His Key Term?
    3. Definition?
    • 1. Althusser
    • 2. Ideological State Apparatus (ISA)
    • 3. The tools (education system, media, religion) used to keep people in their social class and enforce beliefs.
  4. Theories of Ideology
    1. Who defined TWO types of IDEOLOGY?
    2. Definition - TYPE 1
    Definition - TYPE 2
    1. Mannheim

    2. TYPE 1- A set of beliefs used to justify and continue ideas

    TYPE 2 - A Utopian set of beliefs that COULD be organised in the future (put forward by oppressed groups that want to make radical change)
  5. Theories of Science
    The Traditional View of Science
    2. ?
    • 1. Science is objective - the scientist is neutral
    • 2. Scientific enquiry is evidence based - Conclusions are based of evidence and are not preconcieved ideas.
    • 3. Scientific enquirey is 'open' - Ideas which are tested and proved wrong are rejected and more accurate ideas replace them.
  6. Theories of Science
    Traditional Views of science - CHALLENGED
    1. Who challenged traditional view?
    2. Two key arguments he gave.
    a. ?
    b. ?
    • 1. Michael Lynch
    • 2. a) Scientists are more influenced by existing theories that may have been expected.
    • b) When 'anomalies' occurred - scientists gennerally put them down as errors rather than seeing them as evidence towards are new theory or hypothesis.
  7. Theories of Science
    1.Science can be viewed as a belief system like religion - WHO?
    2. Belief system is made up of three factors...
    • 1. Polanyi
    • 2... Three factors

    • 1) Circularity of beliefs - If one belief is challenged it is defended by reference to another in order to avoid change in the belief system.
    • 2) Supporting explainations are given for difficult situations. If any evidence is shown to contradict the belief there will be a reason to explain it.
    • 3. No alternative belief system can be tolerated - A sweeping rejection of religion can be seen as an example of this.
  8. Theories of Science
    Sociology can be treated as a science
    1. The positivist ________ claimed that by using the technique of ________ ________, 'social facts' could be uncovered.
    2. Define this technique?
    3. Give example
    4. What is an Inductive Approach? and this proves... ?

    • 1. Durkheim , Multivariate Analysis
    • 2. When you ISOLATE the IMPACT of the independent variables on the dependant variables.
    • 3. Dependant variables- Achievement of working class
    • Independant Variable - Material deprivation, teacher labelling etc.
    • 4. An inductive approach - Information is collected, Studied and analysed, Theories and hypothesese are drawn, These are tested and when proved (through repetition) They can be regarded as SOCIAL LAW / FACT.
  9. Theories of Science
    1.Deductive apprach .. definition?
    2. Key Thinker?
    3. His arguments against Inductive Approach
    1. ?
    2.? (example)
    3. ?
    • 1. Reverse of inductive; starts with theory which then leads to investigation
    • 2. Popper
    • 3.
    • 1) Rejected idea of permanent social laws - any law law could be FALSIFIED nomatter how many times proved wrong
    • 2. "All swans are white" - proved right until you find a black one!
    • 3. The aim of science is to falsify its own theories. This "falsification" of theories is what makes science different from religion.
  10. Theories of Science
    Scientist work should be viewed in its social context
    1. Key thinker?
    2. Summary of beliefs
    3. example?
    • 1. GOMM
    • 2. Summary - Scientists produce theories as a product of social context and try to prove rather than falsify their theories
    • 3. example - Gomm said that Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest" slotted neatly into the Victorian Capitalist Ideology of free market economics, individualism etc.
  11. Theories of Science
    1. Science is NOT objective ... WHO?
    2. Key Points...
    1) ?
    2. ?
    3. ?
    • 1. Kuhn
    • 2. 1) Scientists work within a paradigm (a frame of accepted ideas)
    • 2) They only seek evidence to support their theories
    • 3. However, anomolies will become so strong that they trigger a piradigm shift or scientific revolution.
Card Set
Holly's Sociology - Religion