Religion is the belief or ritual that is concerned with supernatural beings.
10 Components of the Function of Religion
- 1. Gives a framework for maintaining social order and providing unity within a community.
- 2. Religion defines the structure of the universe and the relation of man and society to the universe.
- 3. Provides behavior guidelines and values.
- 4. Provides motivation.
- 5. Provides relief from stress and anxiety.
- 6. Provides social rules and political order.
- 7. Provides resolution of conflict.
- 8. Provides justice and the enforcement of law.
- 9. Used for the justification of political policy.
- 10. Is the vital part in healing and health.
Common Concepts in Religion
- 1. Pilgrimage- a journey back to the beginning to find God's heart.
- 2. Mana- notion that there is spiritual power in people, places, and things.
- 3. Celebacy- abstaining from sex.
- 4. Witches- people who have supernatural power.
- 5. Self Mutilation & Purification Through Pain & Suffering- done to have a vision of what God sees.
- 6. Cannabalism- eating people is not for a meal but to get something they think the other person possesses.
- 1. Ritual acts to unite a community.
- 2. Portrays or acts out an important aspect of myth.
- 3. To influence the spiritual world to benefit the practitioner.
- 1. Separation
- 2. Communits
- 3. Reintegration
- Coersive- voodoo dolls
- Contagious- voodoo dolls with hair
- 1. Shaman
- 2. Sorceror
- 3. Witch
- 4. Priest
Myths of Religion
- 1. Origin of the universe.
- 2. History of the God.
- 3. Origin of man and animals.
- 4. Myth & origin of man & afterlife.
How Religion Changes
- 1. Syncretism- blending of religious beliefs through contact of other cultures.
- 2. Internal Shifting- religious beliefs shift in relation to society.
- 3. Revitalization Movements- take place in times of economic stress when groups feel socially isolated and when there is an extreme difference in poor and rich people.
- Ascribed (given to you)
- Divorce and Remarriage
Functions of Marriage
- 1. Marriage establishes the legal father and mother of children.
- 2. Gives the husband and wife mutual monopoly on sexuality.
- 3. Mutual rights to labor.
- 4. Provides for rights over property.
- 5. Provides for a join fund of property for children.
- 6. Creates relationships to relatives.
- 7. Determines property transfer at death.
Types of Marriage
- 1. Polygyny- more than one wife.
- 2. Polyandry- more than one husband.
- 3. Serial Monogamy- one wife at a time but several wives over a lifetime.
Two Common Rules Associated with Marriage
- 1. Sororate- a rule of sister substitute.
- 2. Levirate- a rule of brother substitute.
Economic Exchanges in Marriage
- 1. General Exchange- give group A a wife from group B and group B a wife from group A.
- 2. Bride Price- gift exchange.
- 3. Dowry- wife's family gives her something of value to take with her into the marriage.
Exogamy is marriage outside of a given group.
Ways of Measuring Descent
- 1. Patrilineal- measured through the male's family line.
- 2. Matrilineal- measured through the female's family line.
- 3. Bilateral- measured through both male and female family lines,
Types of Descent Groups
- 1. Lineages- groups of kin who trace descent from common ancestor.
- 2. Clan- groups that trace ancestory to a mythological figure.
- 3. Phratry- groups of clans that may have fictious but functional relationships.
- 4. Moiety- two clans with reciprical relationships that are often ceremonial, religious, political, or involve marriage partner selection.
Code of Ethics
There is a responsibility to...
- 1. Those studied.
- 2. The general public.
- 3. The discipline of anthropology.
- 4. To students.
- 5. To sponsors.
- 6. To one's own and/or host government.
Four Roles in Problem Solving (Applied Anthropology)
- 1. Research- understand the problem with intent to intervene.
- 2. Policy & Program Design- what is exceptable or unexceptable and find a way to intervene.
- 3. Implementation- taking action/intervene.
- 4. Evaluation- making sure things being done are working.
Fields of Anthropology
- 1. Salvage Anthropology- saving important information before it is destroyed.
- 2. Education- learn from other cultures.
- 3. Urban Anthropology- Changes for the good.
- 4. Medical Anthropology- healthcare systems and delivery.
- 5. Social Work, Business, & Media.
Trends in Development
- 1. Syphoning- taking wealth from the peasants to give to the elite.
- 2. Migration
Components & Reasons for Migration
- 1. People that migrate are separated from their family.
- 2. Lowest minority status.
- 3. Environmental Degradation
- 4. Global Warming
- 5. Population Growth
- 6. Species Distinction
- 7. Run out of resources.
- 8. Employment Shifting.
- 1. Green Revolution
- 2. Trackers
Sisal is a plant that is turned into fiber.
Development is planned change with an intervention policy.
Rules of Development Failure
- 1. Overinvention
- 2. Projects that result in a radical shift in lifestyle.
- 3. Projects that require a shift from subsistance agriculture to 100% cash crop.
- 4. Underdiffereniation
Indicators of Successful Development
- 1. Culturally Compatable.
- 2. Development that responds to locally perceived needs for change.
- 3. Should harness traditional organizations.
- 4. Has a proper and flexible social design for project implementation.
Five Issues of Benefit of Development
- 1. Balance
- 2. Equitable
- 3. Sustainable
- 4. Feasible
- 5. Scale
Community Development Corporation (CDC) Charateristics
- 1. Evolved from the notion that the community should be involved.
- 2. Undertake projects that involve construction or renovation.
- 3. Located in specific geographic neighborhoods.
- 4. All non-profit organizations.
Three Types of Money Available to Non-Profit Organizations with 501.C.3
- 1. Private
- 2. Government
- 3. Philanthropic
Federal Legislation for CDC
- 1. CRA
- 2. LIHTC
- 3. Homepartnerships
- 4. State HFA