Nematodes 2

  1. Gastrointestinal Helminths is...
    parasitic worms
  2. what is the phylum, order, family and sub family or nematodes of equine
    • p- nematoda
    • o- strongylida
    • f- stongylida
    • sf- cyanthostominae (small strongyles)
    • strongylinae (large strongyles)
  3. What migration route does small strongyles take?
    mucosal migration
  4. There are as many as __ species of the sub family large strongyles known as Stronglinae and as many as 15 to 20 different species can commonly be found in one host
  5. all strongyles are knonw as __ or __
    blood worms or red worms
  6. What are the 3 large strongyles?
    • 1. Strongylus vulgaris
    • 2. Stongylus equinus
    • 3. Strongylus edentatus
  7. How do larger strongyles travel through the body?
    Viseral migratans
  8. What is the Strongyloides found in horse and pig?
    Strongyloides westeri
  9. What is the Strongyloides found in cow?
    Strongyloides papillous
  10. What are some caracteristics of Strongylus vulgaris?
    • 1. smallest of all three primary stongyles
    • 2. most pathogenic
    • 3. Shortest prepatent period of 6 months
    • 4. smallest of the eggs
    • 5. migration via the intestinal arterial system leads to colic and death
    • 6. S. vulgaris is the most common cause of death due to colic as well as cause of colic in us.
  11. What is the migration of Strongylus vulgaris?
    • 3rd stage larvae is ingested by the horse
    • 3rd stage cast its covering and enters wall of the cecum and ventral colon
    • Larvae penetrates to submucosa and 3rd molt to 4th stage
    • 4th stage now penetrates small arteries and aorta and will wander progessively through (mysteriously) to the cranial mesenteric artery (a major supplier to intestines)
    • after 2-4 months of migration, the 4th stage enters the surrounding tissue and molts to 5th stage.
  12. The pathology of Strongylus vulgaris is in the movement of the ___ resulting in inflammation of arteries, clots and moving clots that block the flow of blood
    4th stage larvae
  13. ___ the 3rd stage larvae burrows into the wall of the gut and reaches the liver via portal veins. Larvae makes way back to the cecum and into the bowel lumen
    Strongylus edentatus
  14. __ the 3rd stage larvae molts in the intestinal wall and then 4th stage then makes its way to the right half of the liver, next to the cecum. the 4th molt occurs 4 months later and the adults reenter the lumen of the larger intestines to mate and produce eggs.
    Strongylus equinus
  15. There are about __ species of small strongyles and almost all can parasitize the equine; however like Toxascaris leonina, they do not migrate vscerally like the large strongyles
    40 species
  16. __ larvae burrow into the intestinal wall and lay dormant waiting for the proper time to emerge. During this encysted period, unlike the adult parasites, small strongyles larvae are not susceptible to most deworms.
    Small stongyles
  17. __ is a parasite with a direct life cycle, they like the strongyles inhabit the cecum and the colon of the horse.
    Oxyuris equi
  18. __ inhabits the appendix of the humans, also the large intestines and female genitalia
    Enterobius vermicularis
  19. Enterobius vermicularis is known as "__"
    "seatworm of man"
  20. Oxyuris equi is known as
    equine pinworm
  21. __ is known as itchy anus
    Pruritus ani, caused by the eggs attached to the skin around the anus causes the major problem
  22. __ is not common, but is mentioned since it is an oxyurid of the horse and its entire life cycle is completed in one location, the large intestines
    Probstmayria vivipara
  23. Probstmayria vivipara is known as the..
    "The minute pinworm"
  24. Adult females of Probstmayria vivipara produces __ __ __
    sexually mature offspring
  25. __ is the only ascard in the equine and is the largest of all ascarids of all domestic animals
    Parascaris equorum
  26. __ are found in the anterior part of the small intestines
  27. Toxocara and __ go through the same transtracheal migratory route
  28. There are two primaries -Gasterophilus species- (three total) :Name them
    • 1. Gasterophilus intestinalis
    • 2. Gasterophilus nasalis
    • 3. Gasterophilus haemorrhoidails
  29. The adult flies of Gasterophilus sp. have __ mouth parts and cannot feed, living only to mate and deposit eggs on the second horse
  30. Gasterophilus sp. existence in 3 different forms: name them
    Fly-- Eggs-- Larvae = 1 year total
  31. Male and female flies of Gasterophilus intestinalis reproduce laying eggs on the haris of the __ and __
    forelegs and shoulders
  32. After 5 days of Gasterophilus intestinalis sitting on the horses forelimb, the horse consumes the eggs with hatch and migrate to the __ in the mouth
    dorsal surface of the tongue
  33. Larvae of G. intestinalis remain in the tongue for __ days and then move to the lumen to be swallowed
  34. Intestinalis will attach to the __ and live for about 11 months.
  35. Female and male flies reproduce with eggs being laid on the intermandibular spaces
    Gasterophilus nasalis
  36. Eggs of G. nasalis hatch in 5 days, crawl towards the mouth and then __
    between the lips
  37. In about __ weeks G. nasalis will move to the lumen and be swallowed, the larvae will attach to the duodenum.
    2 weeks
  38. __ the flies they their eggs on the lips, these hatch in 2-4 days when the horse is drinking water.
    Gasterophilus hemorrhoidals
  39. carbon disulfide
    Parvex Plus
  40. Equigard
  41. Trichlofon
  42. Ivermectin
  43. When is customary to deworm your horse?
    one month after the first frost
  44. __ is the intestinal threadworm of the horse, and is far less complex than the intestinal threadworm of the dog
    Strongyloides westeri
  45. Foals and pigs are the two domestic animals most commonly infected via nursing 4-7 days after foaling, name this parasite
    Strongyloides westeri
  46. __ is the second worm shared with another species besides S. westeri.
    Trichostrongylus axei
  47. nick name for Trichostrongylus axei
    minute stomach worm
  48. __this infection can result in ulcers, weight loss, anorexia, hemorrhage and can kill the host
    Trichostrongylus axei
  49. __ is zoonotic and has a high incidence in asia
    T. axei
  50. This family has four members that share the abomasum with T. axei.
    Family Spiruroidea
  51. What does the Family of Spiruroidea include?
    • Habronema muscae
    • Habronema majus
    • Habronema microstoma
    • Drashcia megastoma
  52. What are the two flies that transmit Habronemasis and Drachia?
    • Stomyxcalcitrans- Stable fly
    • Musca domestica- domestic house fly
  53. Habronema and Drashia can perpetrate the host in what two ways?
    • 1. larvae on the skin will invade the tissue and cause "summer sore"
    • 2. Flys that are consumed enter the GI tract and produce catarrhal gastritis with musus production.
  54. What is the intermediate host for horses with tapeworms?
  55. why do you have to use special deworms in dogs/cats with tapeworm but not horse/cow?
    because they dont have teeth or "hooks" in the horse and cow
  56. What four nematodes belong to the family Trichostrongyloidea?
    • Trichostrongyles axei
    • Haemonchus contortus
    • Haemonchus placei
    • Ostertagia ostertagi
  57. __ of ruminants are Nematodes of the Order strongylida
    Strongylid parasites.
  58. Virtually all __ animals are infected with strongylid parasties
  59. Are there ascarids in ruminants?
  60. What is the hookworm for cattle?
    Bunostomum phlebotomum
  61. What is the hookworm for sheep and goats
    Bunostomum trigonocephalum
  62. What are two ways the ruminant host can be infective with hookworms?
    • 1. skin penetration
    • 2. swallowing the larvae from food and water
  63. Two members are incriminated as true trouble childern for cows and sheep, also known as "nodular worm disease"
    • 1. Oesophagostomum columbianum
    • 2. Oesophagostomum radiatum
  64. __Larvae are consumed and mature in the intestines and pass to the large intestines where they penetrate the wall and form black nodules
    Oesophagostomum columbianum
  65. __similar to the sheep nodular worm but these nodules are formed in the small intestines
    Oesophagostomum radiatum
  66. What lung worms of ruminants belong to the Family Trichostongyloidea
    • Dictyocaulus viviparous
    • Dictyocaulus filaria
    • Muellerius capillari
  67. Super family-- __ -- is another lungworm that inhabits the lung of the ruminant but is classified as a super family since it has an indirect lifecylce requiring the earthworm or snail.
  68. __ is a member of the metastrongyloidea super family known as a lungworm, but can inhabit the circulatory system in other species
    Protostrongylus rufescens
  69. Most verminous pneumonias attributed to "lungworms" is a direct result of __
    Protostrongylus rufescens
  70. What is the lungworm lifecycle?
    • eggs laid in the lungs
    • eggs may hatch or may be passed
    • eggs are coughed up, swallowed and passed
    • eggs hatch in soil and larvae are consumed
    • larvae penetrates the intestines- blood- lungs
  71. What is the roundworm of swine
    Ascaris suum
  72. What is the roundworm of man
    Ascairs lumbricoides
  73. What is the lifecycle of Ascaris suum similar to?
    Transtrcheal-- Toxocara
  74. Like the roundworm of Toxocara and Parascairs, Ascaris suum live in the __
    Small intestines
  75. the lifecycle that produces the condition known as "thumbs" is--
    Transtracheal migration of intestines
  76. What percent of the worlds population is positive for Ascaris lumbricoides?
  77. __ is known as the "common kidney worm" is unique in that it has a direct and indirect lifecycle
    Stephanurus dentatus
  78. What is the intermediate host for Stephanurus dentatus?
    earth worm
  79. The worm of this parasite occupies the kidney and produce oval eggs that pass out with the urine and incubate in the soil.
    Stephanurus dentatus
  80. The larvae of Stephanurus dentatus may do what to parasitize another animal?
    • 1. penetrate skin
    • 2. be consumed
    • 3. or be picked up by a earthworm as a faculative intermediate host
  81. This parasite is the 2nd most common in pigs
    Stephanurus dentatus
  82. What is primary route of infection for Strongyloides ransomi, suis, and westeri
  83. __ is from the order Spirurida
    Physocephalus sexalatus
Card Set
Nematodes 2
horse, swine, ruminants