1. absence seizure
    Seizure that may be characterized by a brief lapse of attention in which the patient may stare and does not respond. Also known as petit mal seizure.
  2. abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
    A condition in which the walls of the aorta in the abdomen weaken and blood leaks into the layers of the vessel, causing it to bulge
  3. accessory muscles
    The secondary muscles of respiration.
  4. acidosis
    A pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of acids in the body
  5. acute abdomen
    A condition of sudden onset of pain within the abdomen, usually indicating peritonitis; immediate medical or surgical treatment is necessary.
  6. advance directive
    Written documentation that specifies medical treatment for a competent patient should the patient become unable to make decisions; also called a living will
  7. agonal respirations
    Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying patients
  8. air embolism
    Air bubbles in the blood vessels
  9. allergen
    A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
  10. alpha
    Type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiological source; it is the least harmful penetrating type of radiation and cannot travel fast or through most objects.
  11. amniotic sac
    The fluid-filled, baglike membrane in which the fetus develops.
  12. anaphylactic shock
    Severe shock caused by an allergic reaction
  13. anaphylaxis
    An extreme, possibly life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that may include shock and respiratory failure
  14. anemia
    A deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
  15. aneurysm
    A swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall.
  16. angina pectoris
    Transient (short-lived) chest discomfort caused by partial or temporary blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
  17. anterograde (posttraumatic) amnesia
    Inability to remember events after an injury.
  18. aorta
    The main artery, which receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood to the tissues of the body.
  19. aortic valve
    The one-way valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. It keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after the left ventricle ejects its blood into the aorta. One of four heart valves.
  20. aphasia
    The inability to understand or produce speech
  21. apnea
    A period of not breathing
  22. arrhythmia
    An irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.
  23. arterial rupture
    Rupture of a cerebral artery that may contribute to interruption of cerebral blood flow
  24. arteriole
    The smallest branch of an artery leading to the vast network of capillaries.
  25. arteriosclerosis
    A disease that is characterized by hardening, thickening, and calcification of the arterial walls.
  26. aspiration
    The introduction of vomitus or other foreign material into the lungs.
  27. asystole
    The complete absence of any electrical cardiac activity, appearing as a straight or almost straight line on an ECG strip.
  28. ataxic respirations
    Irregular, ineffective respirations that may or may not have an identifiable pattern.
  29. atherosclerosis
    A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, eventually leading to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
  30. atrium
    Upper chamber of the heart.
  31. aura
    A sensation experienced prior to a seizure; serves as a warning sign that a seizure is about to occur.
  32. auscultation
    A method of listening to sounds within an organ with a stethoscope.
  33. AVPU
    A method of assessing a patient's level of consciousness by determining whether a patient is Awake and alert, responsive to Verbal stimulus or Pain, or Unresponsive; used principally in the initial assessment
  34. bacteremia
    The presence of bacteria in the blood, whether or not a disease process is present
  35. basket stretcher
    A rigid stretcher commonly used in technical and water rescues that surrounds and supports the patient yet allows water to drain through holes in the bottom. Also called a Stokes litter.
  36. battery
    Touching a patient or providing emergency care without consent.
  37. Battle''s sign
    Bruising behind an ear over the mastoid process that may indicate skull fracture.
  38. bends
    Common name for decompression sickness.
  39. beta
    Type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiological source; is slightly more penetrating than alpha, and requires a layer of clothing stop it.
  40. bile ducts
    Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
  41. birth canal
    The vagina and cervix.
  42. blanching
    Turning white.
  43. blood pressure (BP)
    The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
  44. blowout fracture
    A fracture of the orbit or of the bones that support the floor of the orbit.
  45. botulinum
    Produced by bacteria, this is a very potent neurotoxin. When introduced into the body, this neurotoxin affects the nervous system's ability to function and causes botulism.
  46. bradycardia
    Slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min
  47. bradypnea
    Slow respiratory rate; ominous sign in a child that indicates impending respiratory arrest.
  48. breech presentation
    A delivery in which the buttocks come out first.
  49. buboes
    Enlarged lymph nodes (up to the size of tennis balls) that were characteristic of people infected with the bubonic plague.
  50. bubonic plague
    An epidemic that spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, causing over 25 million deaths, also called the Black Death, transmitted by infected fleas and characterized by acute malaise, fever, and the formation of tender, enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes that appear as lesions, called buboes.
  51. burst fractures
    Compression fractures of the vertebrae that typically result from a higher energy mechanism such as a motor vehicle crash or fall from substantial height.
  52. butterfly catheter
    Rigid, hollow, venous cannulation device identified by plastic "wings" that act as anchoring points for securing the catheter.
  53. capillaries
    The small blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules; various substances pass through capillary walls, into and out of the interstitial fluid, and then on to the cells.
  54. capillary refill time (CRT)
    The amount of time that it takes for blood to return to the capillary bed after applying pressure to the skin or nailbed; indicates the status of end-organ perfusion; reliable in children younger than 6 years.
  55. cavitation
    A phenomenon in which speed causes a bullet to generate pressure waves, which cause damage distant from the bullet's path.
  56. cerebral edema
    Swelling of the brain.
  57. cerebral embolism
    Obstruction of a cerebral artery caused by a clot that was formed elsewhere in the body and traveled to the brain.
  58. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    An interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function.
  59. cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder.
  60. chronic bronchitis
    Irritation of the major lung passageways, from either infectious disease or irritants such as smoke.
  61. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli, caused by chronic bronchial obstruction.
  62. coagulate
    To form a clot to plug an opening in an injured blood vessel and stop bleeding.
  63. colic
    Acute, intermittent cramping abdominal pain
  64. communicable disease
    Any disease that can be spread from person to person, or from animal to person.
  65. compensated shock
    The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss.
  66. concussion
    A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without actual physical damage to the brain.
  67. contraindications
    Conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate, for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient.
  68. convection
    The loss of body heat caused by air movement (eg, breeze blowing across the body).
  69. coronary artery
    A blood vessel that carries blood and nutrients to the heart muscle.
  70. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    A disorder in which the heart loses part of its ability to effectively pump blood, usually as a result of damage to the heart muscle and usually resulting in a backup of fluid into the lungs.
  71. crackles
    A crackling breath sound caused by the flow of air through liquid in the lungs; a sign of lower airway obstruction.
  72. crepitus
    A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
  73. cricoid pressure
    Pressure on the cricoid cartilage; applied to occlude the esophagus in order to inhibit gastric distention and regurgitation of vomitus in the unconscious patient.
  74. cross-contamination
    Occurs when a person is contaminated by an agent as a result of coming into contact with another contaminated person.
  75. croup
    An infectious disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough; usually seen in children.
  76. cystitis
    Inflammation of the bladder.
    A mnemonic for assessment in which each area of the body is evaluated for Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures/Penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations, and Swelling.
  78. decompensated shock
    The late stage of shock when blood pressure is falling.
  79. decompression sickness
    A painful condition seen in divers who ascend too quickly, in which gas, especially nitrogen, forms bubbles in blood vessels and other tissues; also called "the bends."
  80. delirium
    A change in mental status marked by the inability to focus, think logically, and maintain attention.
  81. delirium tremens (DTs)
    A severe withdrawal syndrome seen in alcoholics who are deprived of ethyl alcohol; characterized by restlessness, fever, sweating, disorientation, agitation, and seizures; can be fatal if untreated.
  82. dependent edema
    Swelling in the part of the body closest to the ground, caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure (CHF).
  83. dependent lividity
    Blood settling to the lowest point of the body, causing discoloration of the skin.
  84. detailed physical exam
    The part of the assessment process in which a detailed area-by-area exam is performed on patients whose problems cannot be readily identified or when more specific information is needed about problems identified in the focused history and physical exam.
  85. diabetes mellitus
    A metabolic disorder in which the ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugars) is impaired, usually because of a lack of insulin.
  86. diabetic coma
    Unconsciousness caused by dehydration, very high blood glucose levels, and acidosis in diabetes.
  87. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    A form of acidosis in uncontrolled diabetes in which certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available.
  88. diaphoretic
    Characterized by profuse sweating
  89. diastole
    he relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
  90. diastolic pressure
    The pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is at rest.
  91. dilation
    Widening of a tubular structure such as a coronary artery.
  92. diphtheria
    An infectious disease in which a membrane forms, lining the pharynx; this lining can severely obstruct the passage of air into the larynx.
  93. disentanglement
    The removal of a motor vehicle from around the patient.
  94. displaced fracture
    A fracture in which bone fragments are separated from one another and not in anatomic alignment.
  95. dissemination
    The means with which a terrorist will spread a disease, for example, by poisoning of the water supply, or aerosolizing the agent into the air or ventilation system of a building.
  96. diverticulitis
    Bulging out of intestinal rings in small pockets at weak areas in the muscle walls, creating abdominal discomfort.
  97. diving reflex
    Slowing of the heart rate caused by submersion in cold water.
  98. dysarthria
    The inability to pronounce speech clearly, often due to loss of the nerves or brain cells that control the small muscles in the larynx.
  99. dyspnea
    Difficulty breathing
  100. ecchymosis
    Bruising or discoloration associated with bleeding within or under the skin.
  101. eclampsia
    Seizures (convulsions) resulting from severe hypertension in a pregnant woman.
  102. ectopic pregnancy
    A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube.
  103. edema
    The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid between cells in body tissues, causing swelling of the affected area.
  104. embolus
    A blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes blockage.
  105. emesis
  106. emphysema
    A disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  107. end-organ perfusion
    The status of perfusion to the vital organs of the body; determined by assessing capillary refill time (CRT).
  108. end-tidal carbon dioxide detector
    Plastic, disposable indicator that signals by color change when an endotracheal tube is in the proper place.
  109. endotracheal intubation
    Insertion of an endotracheal (ET) tube directly through the larynx between the vocal cords and into the trachea to maintain and protect an airway.
  110. envenomation
    The act of injecting venom.
  111. epiglottis
    A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food or liquid from entering.
  112. epiglottitis
    An infectious disease in which the epiglottis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause upper airway obstruction.
  113. epinephrine
    A substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline), and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction
  114. epistaxis
    A nosebleed
  115. Esophageal Tracheal Combitube (ETC)
    A multilumen airway that consists of a single, dual-lumen tube with two cuffs.
  116. evisceration
    The displacement of organs outside the body.
  117. expressed consent
    A type of consent in which a patient gives express authorization for provision of care or transport.
  118. expressive aphasia
    A speech disorder in which a person can understand what is being said but cannot produce the right sounds in order to speak properly.
  119. extremity lift
    A lifting technique that is used for patients who are supine or in a sitting position with no suspected extremity or spinal injuries.
  120. extrication
    Removal of a patient from entrapment or a dangerous situation or position, such as removal from a wrecked vehicle, industrial accident, or building collapse.
  121. extubation
    Removal of a tube after it has been placed.
  122. febrile seizure
    Seizure relating to a fever.
  123. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
    The federal agency that has jurisdiction over interstate and international telephone and telegraph services and satellite communications, all of which may involve EMS activity.
  124. fetal alcohol syndrome
    A condition of infants who are born to alcoholic mothers; characterized by physical and mental retardation and a variety of congenital abnormalities.
  125. flail chest
    A condition in which two or more ribs are fractured in two or more places or in association with a fracture of the sternum so that a segment of chest wall is effectively detached from the rest of the thoracic cage.
  126. flank
    The region of the lower rib cage.
  127. flutter valve
    A one-way valve that allows air to leave the chest cavity but not return; formed by taping three sides of an occlusive dressing to the chest wall, leaving the fourth side open as a valve.
  128. focused history and physical exam
    The part of the assessment process in which the patient's major complaints or any problems that are immediately evident are further and more specifically evaluated.
  129. Fowler''s position
    The position in which the patient is sitting up with the knees bent.
  130. full-thickness burn
    A burn that affects all skin layers and may affect the subcutaneous layers, muscle, bone, and internal organs, leaving the area dry, leathery, and white, dark brown, or charred; traditionally called a third-degree burn.
  131. gallbladder
    A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
  132. gamma (X-rays)
    Type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiological source that is far faster and stronger than alpha and beta rays. These rays easily penetrate through the human body and require either several inches of lead or concrete to prevent penetration.
  133. gastrostomy tube
    A feeding tube placed directly through the wall of the abdomen; used in patients who cannot ingest liquids or solids.
  134. general impression
    The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surroundings, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms, and the chief complaint.
  135. generalized seizure
    Seizure characterized by severe twitching of all the body's muscles that may last several minutes or more; also known as a grand mal seizure.
  136. generalized tonic-clonic seizure
    A seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness.
  137. generic name
    The original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized.
  138. gestational diabetes
    Diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before pregnancy.
  139. Glasgow Coma Scale
    A method of evaluating level of consciousness that uses a scoring system for neurologic responses to specific stimuli.
  140. glucose
    One of the basic sugars; it is the primary fuel, along with oxygen, for cellular metabolism.
  141. good air exchange
    A term used to distinguish the degree of distress in a patient with a partial airway obstruction. With good air exchange, the patient is still conscious and able to cough forcefully, although wheezing may be heard.
  142. grunting
    An "uh" sound heard during exhalation; reflects the child's attempt to keep the alveoli open; a sign of increased work of breathing.
  143. guarding
    Involuntary muscle contractions (spasm) of the abdominal wall, an effort to protect the inflamed abdomen.
  144. head bobbing
    The head lifts and tilts back during inspiration, then moves forward during expiration; a sign of increased work of breathing.
  145. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    Federal legislation passed in 1996. Its main effect in EMS is in limiting availability of patients' health care information and penalizing violations of patient privacy.
  146. heat cramps
    Painful muscle spasms usually associated with vigorous activity in a hot environment.
  147. heat exhaustion
    A form of heat injury in which the body loses significant amounts of fluid and electrolytes because of heavy sweating; also called heat prostration or heat collapse.
  148. heatstroke
    A life-threatening condition of severe hyperthermia caused by exposure to excessive natural or artificial heat, marked by warm, dry skin; severely altered mental status; and often irreversible coma.
  149. hematemesis
    Vomiting blood
  150. hematoma
    A mass of blood in the soft tissues beneath the skin.
  151. hematuria
    The presence of blood in the urine.
  152. hemiparesis
    Weakness on one side of the body.
  153. hemophilia
    A congenital condition in which the patient lacks one or more of the blood's normal clotting factors.
  154. hemoptysis
    The spitting or coughing up of blood.
  155. hemorrhage
  156. hemorrhagic stroke
    One of the two main types of stroke; occurs as a result of bleeding inside the brain.
  157. hemothorax
    A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.
  158. hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a viral infection, that causes fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, fatigue, and altered liver function.
  159. histamines
    Substance released by the immune system in allergic reactions that are responsible for many of the symptoms of anaphylaxis.
  160. hollow organs
    Structures through which materials pass, such as the stomach, small intestines, large intestines, ureters, and bladder.
  161. hyperglycemia
    Abnormally high glucose level in the blood.
  162. hypertension
    Blood pressure that is higher than the normal range.
  163. hyperthermia
    A condition in which core temperature rises to 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C) or more.
  164. hyphema
    Bleeding into the anterior chamber of the eye, obscuring the iris.
  165. hypoglycemia
    An abnormally low blood glucose level.
  166. hypotension
    Blood pressure that is lower than the normal range.
  167. hypothermia
    A condition in which core temperature falls below 95 degrees F (35 degrees C) after exposure to a cold environment.
  168. hypovolemic shock
    A condition in which low blood volume, due to massive internal or external bleeding or extensive loss of body water, results in inadequate perfusion.
  169. hypoxia
    A condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygen.
  170. hypoxic drive
    A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.
  171. implied consent
    Type of consent in which a patient who is unable to give consent is given treatment under the legal assumption that he or she would want treatment.
  172. incontinence
    Loss of bowel and bladder control due to a generalized seizure.
  173. incubation
    Describes the period of time from a person being exposed to a disease to the time when symptoms begin.
  174. index of suspicion
    Awareness that unseen life-threatening injuries may exist when determining the mechanism of injury.
  175. indirect contact
    Exposure or transmission of disease from one person to another by contact with a contaminated object (vehicle).
  176. infarction
    Death of a body tissue, usually caused by interruption of its blood supply.
  177. informed consent
    Permission for treatment given by a competent patient after the potential risks, benefits, and alternatives to treatment have been explained.
  178. initial assessment
    The part of the assessment process that helps you to identify any immediately or potentially life-threatening conditions so that you can initiate lifesaving care.
  179. insulin
    A hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans (an exocrine gland on the pancreas) that enables glucose in the blood to enter the cells of the body; used in synthetic form to treat and control diabetes mellitus
  180. insulin shock
    Unconsciousness or altered mental status in a patient with diabetes, caused by significant hypoglycemia; usually the result of excessive exercise and activity or failure to eat after a routine dose of insulin.
  181. irreversible shock
    The final stage of shock, resulting in death.
  182. ischemia
    A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible because permanent injury has not yet occurred.
  183. ischemic stroke
    One of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow to a particular part of the brain is cut off by a blockage (eg, a clot) inside a blood vessel.
  184. jaundice
    A yellow skin or sclera color that is caused by liver disease or dysfunction.
  185. joint
    The place where two bones come into contact.
  186. joint capsule
    The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.
  187. kidneys
    Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
  188. Kussmaul respirations
    Deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available in the body.
  189. kyphosis
    A forward curling of the back caused by an abnormal increase in the curvature of the spine.
  190. labored breathing
    Breathing that requires visibly increased effort; characterized by grunting, stridor, and use of accessory muscles.
  191. laceration
    A jagged open wound.
  192. lacrimal glands
    The glands that produce fluids to keep the eye moist; also called tear glands.
  193. laryngeal mask airway (LMA)
    An advanced airway device that is blindly inserted into the mouth to isolate the larynx for direct ventilation; consists of a tube and a mask or cuff that inflates to seal around the laryngeal opening.
  194. laryngoscope
    An instrument used to give a direct view of the patient's vocal cords during endotracheal intubation.
  195. laryngospasm
    A severe constriction of the larynx and vocal cords.
  196. lateral
    Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures.
  197. leukotrienes
    Chemical substances that contribute to anaphylaxis; released by the immune system in allergic reactions.
  198. ligament
    A band of the fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.
  199. lighted stylet
    An instrument used to aid in blind insertion of an endotracheal tube.
  200. limb leads
    The four leads used with a 4-lead ECG; placed on or close to the right arm, left arm, right leg, and left leg.
  201. limb presentation
    A delivery in which the presenting part is a single arm, leg, or foot.
  202. liver
    A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores sugar for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
  203. lumbar spine
    The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.
  204. lumen
    The inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure.
  205. lymph nodes
    Area of the lymphatic system where infection-fighting cells are housed.
  206. mechanism of injury (MOI)
    The way in which traumatic injuries occur; the forces that act on the body to cause damage.
  207. meconium
    A dark green material in the amniotic fluid that can cause lung disease in the newborn.
  208. medivac
    Medical evacuation of a patient by helicopter.
  209. meninges
    Three distinct layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain and the spinal cord within the skull and the spinal canal.
  210. meningitis
    Inflammation of the meninges that cover the spinal cord and the brain.
  211. metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
    A miniature spray canister through which droplets or particles of medication may be inhaled.
  212. minute volume
    The volume of air moved through the lungs in 1 minute; calculated by multiplying tidal volume and respiratory rate.
  213. miosis
    Bilateral pinpoint constricted pupils.
  214. miscarriage
    The delivery of the fetus and placenta before 20 weeks; spontaneous abortion.
  215. multigravida
    A woman who has had previous pregnancies.
  216. multilumen airways
    Advanced airway devices, such as the Esophageal Tracheal Combitube and the pharyngeotracheal lumen airway, that have multiple tubes to aid in ventilation and will work whether placed in the trachea or esophagus.
  217. multipara
    A woman who has had more than one live birth.
  218. multisystem trauma patient
    A patient who experienced trauma that affects more than one body system.
  219. mutagen
    Substance that mutates, damages, and changes the structures of DNA in the body's cells.
  220. mutual aid response
    An agreement between neighboring EMS systems to respond to mass-casualty incidents or disasters in each other's region when local resources are insufficient to handle the response.
  221. myocardial contusion
    A bruise of the heart muscle.
  222. myocardium
    The heart muscle
  223. nares
    The external openings of the nostrils. A single nostril opening is called a naris.
  224. nasal cannula
    An oxygen-delivery device in which oxygen flows through two small, tubelike prongs that fit into the patient's nostrils; delivers 24% to 44% supplemental oxygen, depending on the flow rate.
  225. nasal flaring
    Flaring out of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction.
  226. nasopharyngeal (nasal) airway
    Airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of a conscious patient who is unable to maintain airway patency independently.
  227. nasopharynx
    The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or soft palate.
  228. nasotracheal intubation
    Endotracheal intubation through the nose.
  229. nature of illness (NOI)
    The general type of illness a patient is experiencing.
  230. negligence
    Failure to provide the same care that a person with similar training would provide.
  231. Neisseria meningitidis
    A form of bacterial meningitis characterized by rapid onset of symptoms, often leading to shock and death.
  232. neonatal
    The first month after birth.
  233. neurogenic shock
    Circulatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in spinal cord injuries.
  234. neurotoxins
    Biological agents that are the most deadly substances known to humans; they include botulinum toxin and ricin.
  235. neutron radiation
    Type of energy that is emitted from a strong radiological source; neutron energy is the fastest moving and most powerful form of radiation. Neutrons easily penetrate through lead, and require several feet of concrete to stop them.
  236. nitroglycerin
    A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication.
  237. nondisplaced fracture
    A simple crack in the bone that has not caused the bone to move from its normal anatomic position; also called a hairline fracture.
  238. nonrebreathing mask
    A combination mask and reservoir bag system that is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen and prevents inhaling the exhaled gases (carbon dioxide).
  239. normal sinus rhythm
    A rhythm that has consistent P waves, consistent P-R intervals, and a regular heart rate between 60 and 100 beats/min.
  240. nuchal cord
    An umbilical cord that is wrapped around the infant's neck.
  241. occiput
    The most posterior portion of the cranium.
  242. occlusion
    Blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel.
  243. occlusive dressing
    Dressing made of Vaseline gauze, aluminum foil, or plastic that prevents air and liquids from entering or exiting a wound.
  244. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    The federal regulatory compliance agency that develops, publishes, and enforces guidelines concerning safety in the workplace.
  245. ongoing assessment
    The part of the assessment process in which problems are reevaluated and responses to treatment are assessed.
  246. open abdominal injury
    An injury of the abdomen caused by a penetrating or piercing instrument or force, in which the skin is lacerated or perforated and the cavity is opened to the atmosphere; also called penetrating injury.
  247. open chest injury
    An injury to the chest in which the chest wall itself is penetrated, by a fractured rib or, more frequently, by an external object such as a bullet or knife.
  248. open head injury
    Injury to the head often caused by a penetrating object in which there may be bleeding and exposed brain tissue.
  249. OPQRST
    An abbreviation for key terms used in evaluating a patient's signs and symptoms: onset, provocation or palliation, quality, region/radiation, severity, and timing of pain.
  250. oral glucose
    A simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit.
  251. organic brain syndrome
    Temporary or permanent dysfunction of the brain, caused by a disturbance in the physical or physiologic functioning of brain tissue.
  252. orientation
    The mental status of a patient as measured by memory of person (name), place (current location), time (current year, month, and approximate date), and event (what happened).
  253. oropharyngeal (oral) airway
    Airway adjunct inserted into the mouth to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and to facilitate suctioning the airway.
  254. oropharynx
    A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
  255. orotracheal intubation
    Endotracheal intubation through the mouth.
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Mr. Krinkles