1. air mass
    a large body of air throughout which temperature and misture content are similar.
  2. maritime
    air masses that form over oceans
  3. contimental
    air masses that form over land
  4. cold front
    the front edge of a moving mass of cold air that pushes beneath a warmer air mass like a wedge.
  5. warm front
    the front edge of advancing warm air mass that replaces colder air with warmer air.
  6. base
    serface location of a front.
  7. stationary front
    a front of air masses that moves either very slowly or not at all.
  8. occluded front
    a front that forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass and lifts the warm air mass off the ground and over another air mass.
  9. polar front
    the boundary where cold polar air meets tropical air mass of the middle latitudes, especially over the ocean.
  10. wave cyclones
    beginnings of low-pressure storm centers
  11. midlatitude cyclones
    an area of low pressure that is characterized by rotating wind tht moves toward the rising air of the center low-pressure region.
  12. thunderstorm
    a usually brief, heavy, storm that consists of rain, strong winds, lightning, and thunder.
  13. cumulus stage
    firts stage of a thuderstorm. warm moist air rises and the wter vapor within the air condenses to form a cumulus cloud.
  14. mature stage
    second stage of a thunderstorm. condensation continues as the cloud rises and becomes a dark cumulonimbus cloud. heavy, torrential rain and hailstones may fall from the cloud. strong updrafts continue to rise, downdrafts form as air is dragged downward by the falling precipitation.
  15. dissipating stage
    final stage of a thunderstorm. the strong downdrafts stops air currents from rising. the thunderstorm dissipates as the supply of water vapor decreases.
  16. lightning
    clouds discharge electricity
  17. thunder
    the released electricity heats the air, and the air expands rapidly and produces a loud noise.
  18. hurricane
    a severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more then 120 km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center.
  19. tornado
    a destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds and that maybe visible as a funnel-shaped cloud.
  20. thermometer
    an instrument that measure and indicates temperature.
  21. thermistor
    thermal resistor, is a type of electrical thermometer that responds very quickly to temperature changes.
  22. barometers
    an insterment that mesures atmospheric pressure
  23. anemometer
    an instrument used to measure wind speed.
  24. wind vane
    an instrument used to determine direction of the wind.
  25. radiosonde
    a package of instruments that is carried sloft by balloons to measure upper atmospheric conditions, including temperature, dew point, and wind velocity.
  26. radar
    ra- radio, d- detection, a- and, r-ranging. a system that uses reflected radio waves to determine the velocity and location of objects.
  27. dew point
    the temperature to which the air must cool in order for more water to condense than to evaporate in a given amount of time.
  28. isotherms
    lines that connect points of equal temperature.
  29. isobars
    lines that connect points of equal atmospheric pressure.
  30. atmosphere
    a mixture of gases tht surrounds a planet, such as earth.
  31. ozone
    a gas molecule that is made up pof three oxygen atoms.
  32. particulates
    tiny solid particals in the atmosphere.
  33. atmospheric pressure
    the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface by the weight of the atmosphere.
  34. troposphere
    the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as latitude increases; the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist.
  35. stratosphere
    the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the oxone layer.
  36. mesosphere
    the coldest layer of the atmosphere, netween the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which temperature decreases as altitude increases.
  37. thermosphere
    the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases; includes the ionosphere.
  38. mesopause
    upper boundary of the mesosphere
  39. ionosphere
    lower region of the thermosphere
  40. auroras
    interactions between solar radiation and the ionosphere.
  41. exosphere
    extends for thousands of kilometers above the ionosphere.
  42. temperature inversion
    the layering of warm air on top of cool air.
  43. electromagnetic spectrum
    all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
  44. albedo
    the fration of solar radiation taht is reflected off the surface of an object.
  45. greenhouse effect
    the warming of the surface and lower atomsphere of earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation.
  46. conduction
    the trasfer of energy as heat through a material.
  47. convection
    the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations; can result in the transfer of energy as heat.
  48. Cariolis effect
    the curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to earth's rotation.
  49. convection cells
    three looping patterns of wind flow in each hemisphere.
  50. wind belt
    each convection cell correlates to an area of earth's serface.
  51. prevailing winds
    winds that flow in one main direction
  52. trade winds
    prevailing winds that blow from est to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres.
  53. what direction does the northeastern trade wind blow?
    from northeast
  54. what direction does the southeast trade winds flow?
    from northeast
  55. westerlies
    prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 degries and 60 digres latitude in both hemispheres. both blow to the west.
  56. polar easterlies
    prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60 degrese and 90 degres latitude iin both hemispheres.
  57. doldrums
    where the northern and southern hemispheres trade winds meet at the equator.
  58. horse latitudes
    subtropical high pressure zones
  59. jet streams
    a narrow band of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere.
  60. breezes
    gental winds that extend over distances of less that 100 km.
  61. sea breezes
    a cool wind moving from water to land
  62. land breezes
    cold air moves from land to water
  63. valley breeze
    blows upslope to the mountains
  64. mountain breeze
    bleeze going downward from the mountain to the valley
Card Set
key words for my earth space science test