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  1. What is the sequence of the process children follow when learning language?
    • 1. Vocalizing sounds to obtain a response
    • 2. Recognizing a stimulus-producing sound (barking = dog)
    • 3. Generalizing a word to identify an object
    • 4. Speaking by age 3 in phrases and sentences containing approximately 4 words, understanding "yes" and "no", asking and answering simple questions, and following simple directions
    • 5. Developing language skills - 4-5 words in a sentence, using limited grammar rules, creating and telling personal stories, asking and answering questions, describing objects and personal events
    • 6. Acquiring a speaking vocab of 2,000-3,000 words by kindergarten
    • 7. Developing a continuous ability to produce words that includes the use of social talk, correct grammar and construction of orals and written complex sentences
  2. What is the language experience approach (LEA)?
    An instructional method that incorporates their various components of language arts by using children's experiences and backgrounds as a structure for developing stories
  3. Language interference
    using sounds, syntax and vocabulary of two languages simultaneously as a child participates in literacy activities
  4. Decoding
    Unlocking the meaning of a word
  5. Orthography
    the way a word is spelled
  6. Phonology
    the way a word is pronounced
  7. Syntax
    Sentence structure
  8. Segmentation
    sounds heard in a word
  9. Semantics
    the way a word is defined
  10. word analysis
    A strategy that includes 3 cueing systems: 1) graphophonic, 2) syntactic, 3) semantics
  11. Graphophonic
    Sound/symbol relationships
  12. phonological awareness
    the ability to use letter-sound knowledge to identify an unknown word
  13. phonemic awareness
    the ability to recognize that spoken words are made up of a sequence of individual sounds that contributes to the young reader's ability to recognize and pronounce unknown words
  14. Young readers should be able to perform the following phonemic awareness tasks that realte to learning to read and to spell:
    • 1. Rhyming and alliteration
    • 2. Blending
    • 3. segmenting beginning and ending sounds in words
    • 4. Phoneme substitution
  15. Invented spelling
    a written approximation based on how a child determines the spelling of a word
  16. An instructional structure for developing phonemic awareness:
    • 1. Promote language through different types of oral delivery
    • 2. Create games and activiites that develop an awareness of sounds in words.
    • 3. Design writing activities
  17. alphabetic principle
    there is a one-to-one correspondence between alphabet letters and sounds
  18. graphophonemic knowledge
    the understanding the written words are made up of systematic letter patterns that represent sounds in pronounced words
  19. alphabet
    a series of abstract marks that are assigned identities and sounds for use in written contexts
  20. Instructional sequence for teaching alphabetic principle:
    • 1. Teach letter names in random sequence
    • 2. Teach the formation and sounds of letters in random sequence
    • 3. Teach lessons that highlight one letter at a time
    • 4. Teach the likenesses and differences in letters based on formation and sound
    • 5. Reteach difficult letters
    • 6. Provide skill lessons for students experienceing difficulty in learning letters
  21. Emergent literacy
    the reading and writing experiences that a child encounters before formal literacy instruction begins
  22. scaffolding
    support for a learner as he or she enters a phase of readiness for a new skill
  23. 7 Literary Elements
    • Setting
    • character
    • plot
    • style
    • point of view
    • mood or emotional tone
    • theme
  24. basal reader
    designed to provide a sequence of skills that are introduced, practiced and applied
  25. Sequence for teaching young children to read using word analysis skills:
    • 1. Introduce consonants and short vowels in combination.
    • 2. Introduce single consonanats before introducing consonant blends or clusters.
    • 3. Introduce consonants that have high utility first. /t/ has a higher utility than /z/ - used in more words
    • 4. Begin to introduce more complex letter combinations, such as consonant blends and diagraphs
  26. affix
    a structural element added to the beginning or ending of a root or base word in order to alter the meaning, pronunciation or function.
  27. alphabetic principle
    the idea that individual letters represent individual speech sounds
  28. consonant blend or cluster
    2 or 3 letters in the same syllable that are blended or heard when pronounced (tr in tree)
  29. consonant diagraph
    combination or 2 or more letters that represent a sound that is different from the speech sound that the letters represent individually (ch in chop, sh in shop)
  30. decode
    associating printed letters with the speech sounds the letters make to comprehend a word
  31. diphthong
    two adjacent vowels in which each vowel is heard in the pronunciation (ou in house, oi in oil)
  32. explicit phonics instruction
    providing children with direct phonics instruction that allows them to use decodable text sources that are made up of words and sounds that have been previously taught
  33. grapheme
    a written or printed letter symbol used to represent a speech sound (phoneme)
  34. grapheme-phoneme relationship
    the relationship between printed letters and the sounds they represent
  35. logographic awareness
    the first stage children experience when learning about words. Words are learned as whole units that are sometimes embedded in a logo, such as a stop sign or the arches in the McDonald's sign
  36. morpheme
    the smallest meaningful unit of language
  37. onsets and rimes
    • onsets are the consonants that come at the beginning of syllables in words (bl in blend)
    • rimes are vowels and consonants at the end of a syllable (end in blend)
  38. orthograpy
    correct spelling
  39. phoneme
    the smallest unit of sound in a language the distinguishes one word from another word
  40. phonemic awareness
    the knowledge or understanding that speech consists of a series of sounds and that individual words can be divided into phonemes
  41. phonic analysis
    the process of applying knowledge or understanding that speech consists or a series of sounds and that individual words can b divided into phonemes
  42. vowel digraph
    two adjacent vowels that represent one speech sound
  43. Reading fluency
    relates to a student's being able to (1) orally read a text source by using accuracy in pronouncing words, (2) comprehend effectively because attention is given to textual meaning, (3) provide expression that includes attention to punctuation, and (4) read with a rate that is appropriate for the purpose indentified for reading the text source.
  44. Most common reading difficulties that influence reading fluency
    • 1. word-by-word reading
    • 2. insufficient knowledge of word recognition skills
    • 3. ineffective comprehension
  45. literal comprehension
    • readers respond correctly to questions and statements from stated text
    • identifying main idea and recalling details
  46. Indeferential comprehension
    readers use ideas and information that are stated directly in the text along with their intuition, background and experiences to reach a conclusion or a hypothesis.
  47. Evaluative comprehension
    requires children to compare information and ideas presented in the text with their own experiences, backgrounds, and values.
  48. Stages of Spelling Development
    pg. 67
  49. Writing process
    Prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing
  50. formal assessment
    often centers on norm-referenced standardized tests
  51. informal assessment
    nonstandarized measure that could be an observation, a checklist, a teacher-generated test, an interest inventory, an interview, a research project, a portfolio and informal reading inventory, a reading miscue inventory, or another type of measure that gives a teacher insight into student performance.
  52. running record
    identify the number of correct words a student pronounces in lines of print
  53. portfolio
    a collection of student-generated products over a period of time
  54. Reading levels of an informal reading inventory
    • independent word recognition - 95% - 100% correct -- comprehension level 90% - 100% correct
    • instructional word recognition - 90% - 94% correct -- comprehension level 70% - 89% correct
    • frustration word recognition - less than 90% correct -- comprehension level Less than 70% correct
Card Set
TeXes Generalist test - ELA & Reading
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