Final Exam

  1. True/False: Children of immigrant families seldom have the opportunity to assimilate into middle-class American circles.
  2. True/False: Gonzalez presents an integrated look at both Latin America and Lations in the U.S.
  3. As a result of the rape and pillage of Latin America by U.S. capital since it's independence, millions of workers would not now be _________ ____ this country
    immigrating to
  4. True/False: Gonzalez believes that the labels Latino and Hispanic adequately describe Latin Americans.
  5. True/False: As a result of miscegenation, Mexicans are genetically mulatos.
  6. Manifest Destiny was a ___ century ideology held by ________ to conquer __________.
    19th; Americans; North America
  7. The annexation of Texas in _____ precipitated the war between ______ and _______.
    1836; Mexico; the United States.
  8. In what year did William Walker declare himself the President of Nicaragua?
  9. By the end of the 18th century, how many acres did the United Fruit Company own throughout Central America?
  10. What fraction of Latinos in the U.S. are Mexican?
  11. What group can solely make the claim that they are the earliest Latino settlers in the U.S. and it's earliest immigrants?
  12. What ethnic group in California and the Southwest constitute the single largest ehtnic group?
  13. What river did Americans change the name of? To what?
    The Rio Bravo. They changed it to the Rio Grande.
  14. The most famous Mexican bandit in California was Cheno Cortina.
    False. It was Cheno Cortina. Joaquin and Vasquez were the most famous bandits in California.
  15. By the 1920's the Rio Grande Valley was as segregated as ____________
    apartheid South Africa
  16. True/False: Discrimination and prejudice is more psychologically damaging for adolescents than for adults.
  17. How many Mexican Americans served in the military in World War II?
  18. True/False: Like Cubans, Nicaraguans became exiles instead of aliens.
  19. What is the average life-span of Salvadorans in El Salvador?
    48 years.
  20. True/False: Most Americans that have perished as a result of social violence have been the victims of ______ and ____________
    the military; right wing death squads
  21. The Latino workforce in California is increasingly dependent on ______ workers.
  22. In _____, Maximiliano Hernandez ordered the execution of oer 30,000 ________.
    1932; Salvadorans
  23. Who are considered the heroes of Nicaragua and El Salvador?
    Sandino and Farabundo Marti.
  24. Who was Salvadoran bishop Oscar Romero murdered by?
    A right-wing death squad.
  25. Which Guatemalan president was a fascist sympathizer?
    President Ubico.
  26. What were the names of the first two democratically elected Presidents of Guatemala? Between what years did they serve?
    Arrevalo and Arbenz. They served between 1945 and 1954.
  27. When did the great exodus of Central Americans to the U.S. begin?
    In the 1980's.
  28. Why did Nicaraguans immigrate here?
    As a result of the political and economic upheaval of the Contra War.
  29. True/False: When Central Americans arrived in the U.S., no other Latino group had established an ethnic enclave.
  30. True/False: Central American immigrants, like their Mexican counterparts, are more like political refugees.
  31. When did the last of the Central American Civil Wars come to an end?
  32. Where are most Central Americans concentrated?
    Los Angeles.
  33. What percentage of Latinos labeled themselves as Mexican American in 1995?
    45 percent.
  34. What was the goal of the League of Latin American Citizens (LULAC)?
    The complete assimilation of Mexican Americans.
  35. MAYO was founded by ________ in early ______ in ________.
    Willie Velasquez; 1960; Texas.
  36. What vehicle, founded by Jose Angel Gutierrez, was used to politically take over Crystal City, Texas?
    La Raza Unida Party.
  37. What percent of El Salvador's popultation now resides in the U.S.?
  38. From where did the bulk of Central American immigrants come from?
    El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala.
  39. What year did the Sandinistas take power in Nicaragua?
  40. Who authorized the training and arming of the Contras? For what purpose?
    President Reagan. In order to topple the Sandinistas.
  41. When was the G.I. Forum created? Why?
    It was created in 1953 (49?) as a result of prejudice and segregation of Mexican Americans in Texas.
  42. The Civil Rights Act of _______, the Voting Rights Act of ______, and the Fair Housing Act of ________ toppled the underpinings of discrimination against Blacks and Hispanics in this country.
    1964; 1965; 1968.
  43. The __________ ________ _______, _______ _________, __________ _______ _______ _________ and ___________ ________ helped to overturn many at-large electionsin order to gain ethnic empowerment.
    Southwest Voter Registration; Education Project; Mexican American Legal Defense; Education Fund.
  44. True/ False: The first Latinos did not settle in the continental U.S. until 1698.
    False. It was 1495.
  45. Why might the lot of today's Mexican immigrant youth be even worse than their predecessors?
    Because of persistent external discrimination.
  46. What did Californios suffer as a result of massive immigration caused by the Gold Rush?
    Economic, political and cultural consequences.
  47. What permits Anglo Americans to oppress Mexicans?
    The allegory of the Alamo.
  48. True/False: The collective definition of immigrant groups will improve or worsen depending on the oppportunities available to them.
  49. True/False: Mexican speech has influenced English speech in this country.
  50. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war between Mexico and the U.S. in what year?
  51. When did the largest Chicano student walkouts occur in Los Angeles?
  52. True/False: Rascism among Latinos is real and affects intergroup relations.
  53. True/False: Chicano is the label preference of Latinos.
  54. True/False: Mexican Americans display much the same complex pattern of cultural acculturation ambivalent ethnic identity.
  55. Mexican Americans are socially defined as _________, though race for them is a source of confusion and ambivalence.
  56. True/False: U.S. born Mexican American children, increasingly disconnected from their forward looking Mexican born cousins, are more at risk, particularly in school.
  57. Mexicans have continuously inhabited _______ and the __________.
    California; Southwest.
  58. Who is the only immigrant group that enters the job market at the social bottom?
  59. How do Mexican immigrants achieve economic success?
    Through stable families acting collectively to achieve economic success.
  60. What reinforces the caste-like status for Meixcans?
    Severe poverty
  61. True/ False: 3/4 of Mexican American students claim that Latino students suffer discrimination and prejudice at the hands of teachers and staff.
    False. 2/3
  62. What percent of Nicaraguans now living in the U.S. were born in their country?
  63. In what context is tthe the kind of adjustment newcomers must make to survive determined?
    In the context of reception
  64. How must one become a true citizen?
    Images of ethnicity must be cast-off.
  65. True/False: The term "Nicaraguan" is emerging not as a simple designation of a point of provenance but as a marker of minority status in their new county.
  66. ________ show slightly higher levels of marital stability and education attainment than other Latino groups.
  67. What is the largest Central American group?
  68. The Chicano Generation surfaced between _____ and ____.
    1965; 1975
  69. True/False: More than 70% of Nicaraguans arrived in the 80's.
    False: 80%
  70. Even though the _______ students were more likely to report stonger bilingual abilities than other Latino groups, they were less likely than the other groups to prefer English.
  71. What do Latino adolescents use to seperate from their parents?
  72. What do immigrant youngsters who expect to succeed in the United States experience?
    A strong dissociative push away from their international group.
  73. What is a pre-condition for educational and economic success for immigrants?
    Learning english.
  74. How many Guatemalans died in the Civil War?
    Approximately 100,000
  75. Socioeconomic success depends ____ on advanced educational credentials n the first generation than on possession of entrepreneurial skills.
  76. True/False: Gonzalez aims his book at the historical scholar in order to provide research for enhancing knowledge about Latinos in the U.S.
  77. What magnifies the already considerable challenges of adaptations to a foreign environment?
    The hostility of the surrounding environment.
  78. True/False: The size of Mexican immigration dwarfs that of any other national group while its continuing poverty and adaptive difficulties present major challenges for the U.S. in the future.
  79. Who was the most iconic figure of the Chicano Civil Rights period?
  80. The Tattooed Soldier is about war in _______.
  81. True/False: Longoria has redeeming social value.
  82. True/False: Antonio, contrary to Longoria, is a victim.
  83. True/False: Tobar attempts to educate the reader about rascism.
  84. True/False: Tobar sees the military as a brutal but necessary social institution to keep the peace.
  85. True/False: Longoria is atypical of most Central American immigrants.
  86. True/ False: In the end, Antonio becomes are brutal as Longoria.
  87. University students are suspected of being ____________.
    communist sympathizers
  88. What becomes the hub of the Guatemalan immigrant community?
    South Central Los Angeles
  89. The U.S. is complicit of _________ in Central America.
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Final Exam
Study Guide