Know SEN, SPE, PPV and NPV
Case-control: compares, measurement?
selected for disease, measured by OR
What is the Odds Ratio formula?
Cohort: compares, measurement?
selected for risk factor, measured by RR
What is the Relative Risk formula?
PPV / c(c+d) = RR
Cross Sectional Study: compares, measurement?
Prevalence, particular point in time
Clinical Trial: phases
- I - is it safe?
- 2 - does it work?
- 3 - is it better?
- 4 - postmarketing surveillance
Formula for Prevalence
total cases / total population at a given time
new cases / total population at risk
Attributable risk formula
AR = PPV - c/c+d
Remember AR has PPV first
Attributable risk reduction formula
ARR = c/c+d - PPV
Remember that ARR has c/c+d first
What is the number needed to treat?
1 / ARR
What is the formula to determine confidence interval?
CI = mean +/- Z (SEM)
Z = 1.96 for a 95% interval
Precision vs. Accuracy: Describe
Precision - consistent and reproducable - reliable
Accuracy - valid, close to the truth
Name the 10 types of bias
- Pygmalion Effect
- Hawthorne Effect
mean > median > mode
mean< median < mode
Study X shows that vitamin C can prevent coronavirus infection but 10 other studies show no benefit. what type of error?
type 1 error (a)
Study Y shows that aspirin administration during an MI offers know improvement in patient morbiditiy or mortality. What type of error is present?
Type II B error
In a normal Gaussian curve, what percentage of people fall 1, 2 and 3 standard deviations?
How do you determine the standard error of the mean?
SEM = standard deviation / square root of number in study
Test types: t - test
difference of mean of 2 groups
Test types: ANOVA
mean difference between 3 or more groups
Test types: x2 (Chi-Square)
difference between proportions or percentages
3 stages of disease prevention
- Primary - prevent
- Secondary - early detection
- Tertiary - reduce disability
Kubler Ross stages of grief
Name the order of surrogates if patient is disabled without living will
- Adult children
- Other Relatives
What are the components of the APGAR score?
Early Developmental Milestones: 0-3months
- Rooting Reflex
- Social Smile
- Responds to voice
Early Developmental Milestones: 7-9 months
- Sits alone, crawls, holds toys
- Stranger anxiety
- Responds to name and simple instructions
Early Developmental Milestones: 12-15 months
- Walks, Babinski disappears
- Separation anxiety
- Few words
Early Developmental Milestones: 12-24 months
- Climbs stairs, stacks blocks (3 @ 1 year, 6@ 2 years)
- Moves away from and back to Mom
- Object permanence, 2 word sentences @ 2 years
Early Developmental Milestones: 24-36 months
- Feeds self, kicks ball
- gender identity
- Toilet Training "Pee at age 3"
Early Developmental Milestones: 3 years
- Rides tricycle, drawings
- comfortable away from Mom for part of day
- 900 words, complete sentences
Early Developmental Milestones: 4 years
- buttons, zippers, grooms, stick figure drawing
- cooperative play, imaginary friends
- detailed stories, preposition use
Name Sleep Stages
- Awake = Beta
- Meditation = Alpha
- Stage I = Theta
- Stage II = Sleep Spindles and K complexes
- Stage III = Delta (night terrors)
- REM = Beta (dreaming, increased brain O2 use)
BATS Drink Blood at night
Serotonin in the _ nucleus for initiating sleep
Imipramine is used to treat _ because it decreases stage 3 sleep
Enuresis (bed wetting)
What is associated with reduced REM? One of these drugs is treatment for night terrors
EtOh, Benzos, Barbs
Benzo for night terrors/sleepwalking
In depressed patients there is a _ in REM sleep
Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
Circadian rhythms are driven by the _ nucleus to control secretion of ACTH, prolactin, melatonin. It causes NE release to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce _.
Describe what to do with the following APGAR scores:
>7, 4-6, <4
- >7 = good
- 4-6 = assist
- <4 = resuscitate
When does grief become pathological?
If lasting longer than 2 months, accompanied by hallucinations
Describe the specs of REM sleep
- 1 ACh initiates
- 2 Increased BP
- 3 PPRF causes extraocular movement
- 4 Penile/Clitoral Tumescence
- 5 Every 90 minutes
The suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits secretion of _ and _ which impact the libido.