4131 Week 1

  1. Change
    -is situational and is usually focused on the end results (goal)
  2. Transition
    • -is psychological and is the process; consists of 3 phases
    • 1. ending
    • 2. neutral zone
    • 3. new beginning
  3. 1. Active Change vs 2. Reactive Change
    • 1. Active change: choice of best option with awareness of possibilities and conscious (deliberate) participation
    • 2. Reactive change: no choice in the change influence; sometimes an act based on reflex
  4. Chaos Theory
    • -non-linear/no cause & effect/unpredictable
    • -hidden variables always exist
    • -changes in outcomes not proportional to degree of initial change??
    • -Butterfly effect: small significant event causes a chain of events (chaotic behavior) = a # of possibilities

    • (in articles)
    • -by meteorologist Lorenz in the 60s to improve weather forecasting techniques
    • =about finding the underlying order in apparently random data
  5. Human Systems
    • -creating order out of disorder
    • -make choices to manage chaos
    • -unpredictable nature=creativity (no 2 snowlflakes are the same)
    • -sensitivity to conditions leads to a variety of responses within a system
  6. Emotional Phases of Change Process
    Image Upload 1
  7. "Rules" for Change - Porter-O'Grady (1998)
    • -make no exceptions
    • -read the signs
    • -consruct a vision
    • -empower the center
    • -construct new architecture
    • -always have a plan of action
    • -evaluate, adjust, and evaluate again
  8. Barriers to Change
    • -Attitudes/values/cultural and social background
    • -Understanding/knowledge
    • -Past experiences (+ or -) of people affected by change
    • -Resources (financial or personnel)
    • -System inadequacies (support, infrastructure)
    • **"...90% of effort is spent talking about change or convincing people to change, and only 10% is devoted to actually working on the change" - Dickinson (2002)
  9. Lewin's Change Theory (name 3)
    1. Unfreezing

    2. Movement

    3. Refreezing
  10. 1. Unfreezing
    • Preparation for change (most important stage bc change is necessary)
    • -gather info
    • -identify problem
    • -decide if change is needed
    • -consider all factors r/t change
    • -communicate awareness
    • -identify who will be affected
  11. 2. Movement
    • Accept and Engage in Change (need to support those involved)
    • -develop plan and set goals
    • -set goals and objective
    • -identify areas of support and resistance (identify sources of power)
    • -identify tasks and timelines
    • -develop strategies
    • -implement the change
    • -evaluate change
  12. 3. Unfreezing
    • Integration of new change (evaluation)
    • -ongoing assessment/evaluation of change
    • -support others in the change
    • -stabilize change and make part of new norm
  13. Lewin's Force Field Analysis: 1. driving forces (forces for) vs. 2. restraining forces (forces against)
    1. Driving forces (facilitators)

    2. Restraining forces (barriers)
  14. 1. What is a change agent? (Marquis & Huston, 2009)
    2. Qualities of a change agent? (PP)
    1. person skilled in the theory and implementation of planned change - to deal appropriately with these very real human emotions and to connect and balance all aspects of the organization that will be affected by that change

    • 2.
    • -management and leadership skills
    • -understanding of change theory and implementation
    • -expert planning skills
    • -effective communicator
    • -good collaborator
  15. Change agent characteristics?
    • -vision
    • -flexible/adaptable
    • -risk taker
    • -role model
    • -problem solver
    • -sense of timing
    • -proactive
    • -forward thinking
    • -credible and trustworthy
  16. The following cards derived from Marquis & Huston (2009)
  17. Planned Change
    • -results from a well-thought out and deliberate effort to make something happen
    • -deliberate application of knowledge and skills by a leader to bring about a change
    • -key role of HCW: facilitate changes in workplace to improve care and meet fiscal realities
  18. Contemporary adaptation of Lewi's model: Cummings and McLennan and their 5 steps
    • 1. to use a change model to guide process
    • 2. assign a change agent to support, coordinate, and market the change at all levels of organization
    • 3. forum to facilitate open communication bw all affected by the change during actual change
    • 4. attend to support staff during the transition period
    • 5. ?
  19. Complexity Science Change Theory?
    • -latest generation of systems thinking that investigates patterns and has emerged from the exploration of subatomic world and quantum physics
    • -argues that world is complex as are the individuals who operate within in
    • -control and order are emergent rather than predetermined
  20. Complex Adaptive System Theory?
    • -An outgrowth of complexity theory
    • -suggests that the relationship bw elements or agents within any system is nonlinear and that these elements are key players in changing settings or outcomes
  21. Classic Change strategies
    1. Rational-empirical strategies
    2. Normative-re-educative strategies
    3. Power-coercive strategies
  22. 1. Rational-empirical strategies
    -change agent assumes that resistance to change comes from lack of knowledge and that humas are rational beings who will change when given factual info documenting need for change
  23. 2. Normative-re-educative strategies
    • -use group norms and peer pressure to socialize and influence people so that change will occur
    • -change agent gains power by skill in interpersonal relationships
  24. 3. Power-coercive strategies
    • -influencing enactment of new lawas and using group power for strikes or sit-ins
    • -assume people often are set int heir ways and will change only when rewarded for the change or when they're forced by some other power-coercive method
    • -resistance handled by authority measures; individual must accept it or leave
Card Set
4131 Week 1
Change class, PP reference