Anthropology ch 1

  1. adaptation
    The process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses. 3
  2. anthropology
    The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors. 2
  3. applied anthropology
    The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems. 18, 248
  4. archaeological anthropology
    The branch of anthropology that reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains; best known for the study of prehistory. Also known as "archaeology." 13
  5. biocultural
    Referring to the inclusion and combination (to solve a common problem) of both biological and cultural approaches— one of anthropology's hallmarks. 11
  6. biological anthropology
    The branch of anthropology that studies human biological diversity in time and space—for instance, hominid evolution, human genetics, human biological adaptation; also includes primatology (behavior and evolution of monkeys and apes). Also called physical anthropology . 15
  7. cultural anthropology
    The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. 12
  8. cultural resource management (CRM)
    The branch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects. 18
  9. culture
    Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning. 2
  10. ethnography
    Field work in a particular culture. 12
  11. ethnology
    The theoretical, comparative study of society and culture; compares cultures in time and space. 13
  12. food production
    Plant cultivation and animal domestication. 4
  13. general anthropology
    The field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology. 4
  14. holistic
    Interested in the whole of the human condition past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture. 2
  15. linguistic anthropology
    The branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in time and space, including interrelations between language and culture; includes historical linguistics and sociolinguistics . 16
  16. natural selection
    Originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace; the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment, such as the tropics. 9
  17. phenotype
    An organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology"—anatomy and physiology. 6, 232
  18. racial classification
    The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories (purportedly) based on common ancestry. 6
  19. science
    A systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment, observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena, with reference to the material and physical world. 17
  20. sociolinguistics
    Study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context. 17, 71
  21. tropics
    Geographic belt extending about 23 degrees north and south of the equator, between the Tropic of Cancer (north) and the Tropic of Capricorn (south). 9
Card Set
Anthropology ch 1
key terms