1. measurement
    observable characteristics of our variables
  2. triangulations
    multiple approaches in one research study; means to enhance the quality of the work done
  3. methodologically
    using both quantitative and qualitative methods
  4. data
    instead of using methods, bring in data from different instituations or places
  5. researcher triangulation
    have multiple researchers collect data
  6. theoretical triangulation
    bring in different theories and triangulate betweent two to three of them
  7. Variable measurement: nominal
    simply asking a question that puts a variable into a category.
  8. Nominal characteristics:
    • must be mutually exclusive,
    • must be equivalent
    • must be exhaustive --> you leave no possible responses out
  9. Ordinal characteristics
    • must meet all the nominal characteristics, but is also rank order
    • anytime you have to rank your sources, such as grades or team sports
  10. Interval characteristics
    • equal distances between two points on the scale
    • we will know how much someone likes something
    • zero rating: its a point on the scale, doesnt mean it doesnt exist
  11. Likert Scales
    • scale must be an interval
    • low numbers are disagree, higher numbers are agreement (1-5)
    • likert type scale uses any modification such as 1-7
  12. semantic differential scales
    polar opposites on both ends of the scale
  13. ratio measurement scales
    zero does not mean the variable does not exist
  14. tunnel method
    same types of questions throughout
  15. funnel method
    start with broader questions, then narrow them down
  16. inverted funnel method
    specific to broad
  17. 4 question order effects
    • consistency: lying about something up front means you will probably lie the whole way through
    • fatigue: questionnaire is too long
    • redundancy: similar questions posed in different ways annoy the reader and they can start to check boxes
    • response set: clicking one question the whole way through
  18. reliability
  19. validity
  20. internal validiy
    • draw accurate conclusions from my research
    • we want a high amount of internal validity
  21. external validity
    how generalizable are my findings, as in, how much can i apply what i found to other people
  22. if you are valid you must be
    reliable as well. you are not necessarily valid if you are reliable
  23. measurement reliability
    consistency of our measure and establishes high internal validity
  24. Three ways to have measurement reliablity
    • test/retest method: comparing when tests are taken twice
    • alternative forms: give one group of people your measure and also give them a measure that is testing about a similar concept
    • split half: compare each half of the quetions to each other
  25. internal consistency method
    • best method to have measurement reliability
    • calculates all the possible split halves, all the possible outcomes to give the best one
    • Chronbachs Alpha gives this to us, we want higher than .7
  26. Threats to internal validity
    • history effect: something external to the study affects the participants
    • sleeper effect: effects of the study took longer than expected and you didn't wait long enough to observe them
    • sensitization: give a group a measure and ask them to take the same measure at a later time; didnt give them long enough to forget their answers
    • data analysis: certain procedures and statistical analysis should be used in certain instances
  27. more threats to internal validity
    • participants:
    • must have good incentive
    • Hawthorne effect: know they are being studied
    • selection: who are the people being studied
    • statistical regression to the mean: need a larger group of people if your average is unusually high
    • mortatlity/attritition: people drop out of the study
    • maturation: internal changes that are going on in the participant
  28. researcher threats to internal validity:
    • combat threats to ourselves
    • blind procedure: participants do not know what group they are in
    • double blind: neither participants or researcher know what group they are in
  29. external validity:
    ecological validity: does the research describe what is accurately happening in real life
  30. replication:
    • exact: repeat study in exact same way
    • partial: keeps some of the study the same, but modifies others
    • conceptual: keeps the concept of the study the same but uses entirely new procedures
  31. what is a sample
    a subgroup of people collected from both a population and target population that actually participate in the study
  32. three problems with samples
    • size: contingent on statistical distribution -need a minimum of thirty people
    • bias: systematically exculded some people that could have been useful to the study
    • representativeness: we want our sample to accurately represent our population
  33. sampling frame
    list of all possible participants
  34. sampling unit
    each person on the roster
  35. sampling error:
    the extent to which my sampling deviates from my population
  36. confidence level
    how confident i am that my sample is representative of my population --> want to be 95% or higher
  37. confidence interval:
    plus or minus range that i believe my sample will fall between
  38. IRB guiding principle
    the rewards of doing my research do not outweigh the costs
  39. empiracal
  40. conceptualization:
    the dictionary definition of what you are going to stuyd
  41. operationalizaton:
    how are you going to measure your variables
  42. Data collection
    what method are you going to use
  43. data analysis:
    what statistical tests are you going to use; qualitative or quantitative
  44. reconceptualization
    discussion about how does it fit in with the theory, is more research needed, etc
  45. Epistemology
    • Pos: researcher and work are seperate from one another
    • Nat: your perspective affects your research
  46. Axiology:
    • pos: research should be value free, unbiased
    • nat: how you view the world is important to your research
  47. Methodological
    • pos: deduction, reason down to a conclusion- cause and effect, quantitative methods
    • nat: induction -specific to general, goal is a wholistic understanding at human behavior
  48. Rhetorical assumption
    • Pos: standardized, in the third person
    • Nat: first person, more story telling type way
  49. Research Question and the three types
    • tends to be less defined- unsure of what to look for or find
    • descriptive: describe something or something that there is no information about
    • tests of association: purpose of there is a relationship between concepts being studied
    • Tests of difference: looking for differences between groups
  50. Hypothesis and two types
    • hypothesis is a statement
    • tests of association: purposing a relationship
    • tests of difference: will state a difference between variables
  51. Two tailed and one tailed questions
    • two tailed: does not predict a direction
    • one tailed: predicts a direction between the variables
  52. independent variable
    influences change in the dependent variable
  53. dependent variable
    is the variable being changed
  54. recursive cuasal model:
    • one way street: one cause --> one effect
    • ie: smoking cigarettes cuases cancer, and not the other way around
  55. non-recursive cuasal models
    two way street, reciprocal cause and effect go both ways
  56. non-causal relationship:
    variables are related but changes in the one do not cause changes in the other
Card Set
Test One