- P-related and non-contrasting sound
- A-variant of a phoneme
- M-smallest meaningful element (word, or re, fill, refill)
13 speech organs (p. 3)
- mouth cavity
- nasal cavity
- teeth ridgh (alviolar)
- Pallet (hard and soft)
- Vocal cords
- wind pipe (tracia)
- lungs (air from)
- voice-vocal chords are vibrating
- voiced-voice is used
- -voiceless-vocal cords in wide open position
- voice is always used and mouth cavity in unobstucted (air passes freely).
- Quality is determined by position of tongue. (glides and dipthongs)
mouth passage is obstructed at any time.
air flow not stopped, but impeded. In other words, narrowing air passage --friction
example: mountAin is pronounced MountN... this is a glottle stop.
slow release, as in Ja
rapid release as in Pa
flow completely blocked.
sonarate noise, like a hum, resonant vibration as in R, N, or M
Eth--voiced th, as in "them"
thorn--unvoiced th as in thick
Wynn--as in /w/ ... replaced with "uu" then "w"
unvoiced fricitive in a voiced environmment
it is voiced. ... any unvoiced fricitive is voiced in an unvoiced environment.
pronounce every vowel (it's like more of a glide).
Front mutation OR I-umlaut (same thing).
anticipate i or j ending that changes the first vowel sound.
Where do inflections or case still exsist?
Our pronoun system
2 tenses -- past and present (NO future--it is formed with a model).
Icelandic, Norwegian, Faroese
Saxon, Fresian, Dutch, German
strong and weak verbs
- weak-like everything else
takes language tag and traces its use and developement
a signaling system
voiced or unvoiced
F vs. V
Positions of the mouth (p. 5)
Positions of the mouth -- list them (p. 5)
peak of prominence in the chain of utterance
predictable and prescribed
reports on language
8 changes in language
- 1 new words
- 2 old words disappear
- 3 definitions change
- 4 inflections have changed
- 5 word enings die out
- 6 closed class forms change
- 7 syntax changes
- 8 pronounciation changes
9 mechanisms of linguistic change
- 1 soung laws-- Grimm's and Verner's
- 2 bilingualism
- 3 dialect leveling/confluence
- 4 prestige
- 5 immitation of chidren--imperfect
- 6 principle of ease
- 7 assimilation
- 8 dropping of consonants
- 9 add extra letters for ease of pronounciation
running syllables together
decended from Latin
Version of a language with a different vocab and structure
a word that comes from the SAME ROOT. In other words, borrowed words are not cognates.
Old English uses
words--defined by what they mean
function words--defined by what they do.
the way that words change according to their function. For instance, eating, ate, eat.
the musical pitch of the voice
morpheme--free and bound`
- free-means what it means by itself
- bound-relies on other things for meaning
syntax and meaning
not ALWAYS married
- Object=Accusative (D.O.)
- Dative=(object of prepostion. usually I.D.)
5 Things language does
- 1 expression
- 2 play
- 3 cognition
- 4 anthropological purposes
- 5 influences behavior (makes cooperation possible)
- Analytic (like Japanese)
- Synthetic (bound morphemes)
- All have vowels
- All have oral vowels
The midterm will be graded on...
- explanation of how and why
The language that influenced Middle English most
- French. via the Norman conquest 60-70% of borrowed vocab words.
- Latin via French, the church, and science.
vocal cords vibrate as air passes through, and produce a musical tone called voice. It varies as we talk producing the musical melody of English.
sounds in which voice is used
voiceless or breathed
made with the vocal cords in wide open position
glide or dipthong
vowels in which the speech organs change their positions in the course of the sound. Example: "boy"
Distinguish between a dipthong and a sequence of two vowels
- Dipthong: fAce
- Two vowels: helIUm
blockage is made by complete closure of the vocal cords
a consonant in which the articulators approach one another, but not closely enough to produce a fricitive or a stop like /r/ which approached the teeth ridge as though it is /d/ but then curls backward.
made by blocking the flow of air through the mouth by pressing the lips together and then suddenly releasing the blockage by opening the lips. As with /p/
related and noncontrasting sounds
# of phonemes in English
about 45 (depending on how you treat dipthongs and the different variations of English)
the variant forms of any phoneme
- using the same phonetic symbols for similar sounds instead of being VERY SPECIFIC about it. They are usually found between oblique lines.
- there is one symbol for each phoneme in the language
allophonic and phonetic transcription
finere distinctions between phonemes
stressed and unstressed syllables
- The stressed syllable=pronounced more forcefully.
- The unstressed syllable=pronounced less forcefully.
musical pitch of the voice
smallest meaningful element in a language. So RE and FILL are both morphemes.
boung and unbound morphemes example:
RE-FILL. Re is bound because it has no meaning on its own. Fill is unbound because it means something on its own.
regular changes in the pronounciation of a language
the change of a sound under the influence of a neighboring one.
sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant
the process of inventing a new element in conformity with some part of the language system you already know. (rarer word = more likely to be affected by analogy)
Example: mouse is mice so house must be hice.
5 or 6??? romance languages
- 1 Portuguese
- 2 Spanish
- 3 Italian
- 4 Provencal
- 5 French
- 6 Romanish
dividing lines for pairs of features in dialects
method of dating languages of families. relies on the idea that very common words are highly resistent to change.
inflectional form that indicates a word's grammatical function
Inflection that indicates number, case, and gender.
The inflection of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case (nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and gender.
gradation or ablaut
Vowels altering in related forms. (sing, sang, sung). Specific vowels that do this are called a grade
How did celtic place names remain in the language
it was easier than renaming everything
Nope. They were inferior so their language died out.
runic alphabet developed in English in 7th century
futhorc (p. 113)
front mutation or i-umlaut or i-mutation (p. 121)
a series of changes to vowels which took place when there was an i or j in the second syllable. The i or j disappeared or changed to e. Accounts for differences in related vowels like dole and deal.
4 cases used today
nominative, accusitive, genetive, dative (p. 123)
Norman conquest (p. 144).
English began to reemerge. Tipping from French to English
English becomes official language
assimilation p. 42
the changing of a sound under the influence of a neighboring sound. As in, skamt became scant. The /n/ changed under influence of the /t/
haplology p. 42
sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant. Ex. temporary pronounced tempory. Or excuse me becomse scuse me.
dropping consonants p. 42
Christmas is now Chrismas, and Knight is now night.
extra phonemes added p. 42
Thunder used to be thuner. By normal developement this would have not happened but somewhere the /d/ cropped up. Probably added because with it, it calls for less precise movement of the speech organs.
predicts the change in consonants (how they have happened, so they will happen that way again). Specific changes on p. 97
dialect leveling and confluence
dialects blend into each other and become one general dialect.
Hamitic p. 53
Ancestor of language of Ancient Egypt which is today Arabic, Coptic, spoken in North Africa and Somali
Semantic p. 52
ancestor of moabite, phoenician, aramaic, and Hebrew. Also part of Hamitic.