History of English midterm

  1. Phoneme
    • P-related and non-contrasting sound
    • A-variant of a phoneme
    • M-smallest meaningful element (word, or re, fill, refill)
  2. 13 speech organs (p. 3)
    • lips
    • teeth
    • mouth cavity
    • nasal cavity
    • teeth ridgh (alviolar)
    • Pallet (hard and soft)
    • Velum
    • Uvula
    • Tongue
    • Glotis
    • Vocal cords
    • wind pipe (tracia)
    • lungs (air from)
  3. voice
    • voice-vocal chords are vibrating
    • voiced-voice is used
    • -voiceless-vocal cords in wide open position
  4. vowel
    • voice is always used and mouth cavity in unobstucted (air passes freely).
    • Quality is determined by position of tongue. (glides and dipthongs)
  5. consonant
    mouth passage is obstructed at any time.
  6. frictives
    air flow not stopped, but impeded. In other words, narrowing air passage --friction
  7. glottle stop
    example: mountAin is pronounced MountN... this is a glottle stop.
  8. africitive
    slow release, as in Ja
  9. plosive
    rapid release as in Pa
  10. stops
    flow completely blocked.
  11. sonerate
    sonarate noise, like a hum, resonant vibration as in R, N, or M
  12. æ
    ash--as in archæology
  13. Ð, ð
    Eth--voiced th, as in "them"
  14. Þ, þ
    thorn--unvoiced th as in thick
  15. Wynn--as in /w/ ... replaced with "uu" then "w"
  16. Ȝ ȝ
    Yogh--g or y or j
  17. unvoiced fricitive in a voiced environmment
    it is voiced. ... any unvoiced fricitive is voiced in an unvoiced environment.
  18. dipthongs
    pronounce every vowel (it's like more of a glide).
  19. Front mutation OR I-umlaut (same thing).
    anticipate i or j ending that changes the first vowel sound.
  20. Where do inflections or case still exsist?
    Our pronoun system
  21. tenses
    2 tenses -- past and present (NO future--it is formed with a model).
  22. Old English syntax
  23. West Scandanavian
    Icelandic, Norwegian, Faroese
  24. West Germanic
    Saxon, Fresian, Dutch, German
  25. strong and weak verbs
    • strong-irregular
    • weak-like everything else
  26. cases today
    • nomative
    • dative
    • accusative
    • genative
  27. isogloss
    takes language tag and traces its use and developement
  28. language is...
    a signaling system
  29. voiced or unvoiced
    F vs. V
  30. Positions of the mouth (p. 5)
    Image Upload 1
  31. Positions of the mouth -- list them (p. 5)
    • Front
    • Center
    • Back
    • Open
    • Half-open
    • Closed
  32. syllable
    peak of prominence in the chain of utterance
  33. prescriptivism
    predictable and prescribed

    the standard

    commands language

  34. descriptivism
    reports on language

    in flux

    no standard--pragmatics

  35. 8 changes in language
    • 1 new words
    • 2 old words disappear
    • 3 definitions change
    • 4 inflections have changed
    • 5 word enings die out
    • 6 closed class forms change
    • 7 syntax changes
    • 8 pronounciation changes
  36. 9 mechanisms of linguistic change
    • 1 soung laws-- Grimm's and Verner's
    • 2 bilingualism
    • 3 dialect leveling/confluence
    • 4 prestige
    • 5 immitation of chidren--imperfect
    • 6 principle of ease
    • 7 assimilation
    • 8 dropping of consonants
    • 9 add extra letters for ease of pronounciation
  37. haplology
    running syllables together
  38. romance languages
    decended from Latin
  39. Dialect
    Version of a language with a different vocab and structure
  40. cognate
    a word that comes from the SAME ROOT. In other words, borrowed words are not cognates.
  41. language tree
    Image Upload 2
  42. Old English uses
    multiple negation
  43. lexical
    words--defined by what they mean
  44. grammatical
    function words--defined by what they do.
  45. morphology
    the way that words change according to their function. For instance, eating, ate, eat.
  46. entonation
    the musical pitch of the voice
  47. morpheme--free and bound`
    • free-means what it means by itself
    • bound-relies on other things for meaning
  48. Syntax
  49. syntax and meaning
    not ALWAYS married
  50. SVO
    • S=nominative
    • Object=Accusative (D.O.)
    • Dative=(object of prepostion. usually I.D.)
  51. 5 Things language does
    • 1 expression
    • 2 play
    • 3 cognition
    • 4 anthropological purposes
    • 5 influences behavior (makes cooperation possible)
  52. language types
    • Analytic (like Japanese)
    • Synthetic (bound morphemes)
  53. Language universals
    • All have vowels
    • All have oral vowels
  54. The midterm will be graded on...
    • content
    • coherency
    • relevence
    • explanation of how and why
  55. The language that influenced Middle English most
    • French. via the Norman conquest 60-70% of borrowed vocab words.
    • THEN
    • Latin via French, the church, and science.
  56. q celt p. 65
  57. p celt p. 65
  58. voice
    vocal cords vibrate as air passes through, and produce a musical tone called voice. It varies as we talk producing the musical melody of English.
  59. voiced
    sounds in which voice is used
  60. voiceless or breathed
    made with the vocal cords in wide open position
  61. glide or dipthong
    vowels in which the speech organs change their positions in the course of the sound. Example: "boy"
  62. Distinguish between a dipthong and a sequence of two vowels
    • Dipthong: fAce
    • Two vowels: helIUm
  63. 3 types of consonant
    • fricitive
    • stop
    • sonorant
  64. glottle stop
    blockage is made by complete closure of the vocal cords
  65. approximant
    a consonant in which the articulators approach one another, but not closely enough to produce a fricitive or a stop like /r/ which approached the teeth ridge as though it is /d/ but then curls backward.
  66. voiceless stop
    made by blocking the flow of air through the mouth by pressing the lips together and then suddenly releasing the blockage by opening the lips. As with /p/
  67. phonemes
    related and noncontrasting sounds
  68. # of phonemes in English
    about 45 (depending on how you treat dipthongs and the different variations of English)
  69. allophone
    the variant forms of any phoneme
  70. phonemic transcription
    • using the same phonetic symbols for similar sounds instead of being VERY SPECIFIC about it. They are usually found between oblique lines.
    • SO
    • there is one symbol for each phoneme in the language
  71. allophonic and phonetic transcription
    finere distinctions between phonemes
  72. stressed and unstressed syllables
    • The stressed syllable=pronounced more forcefully.
    • The unstressed syllable=pronounced less forcefully.
  73. intonation
    musical pitch of the voice
  74. morpheme
    smallest meaningful element in a language. So RE and FILL are both morphemes.
  75. boung and unbound morphemes example:
    RE-FILL. Re is bound because it has no meaning on its own. Fill is unbound because it means something on its own.
  76. sound laws
    regular changes in the pronounciation of a language
  77. assimilation
    the change of a sound under the influence of a neighboring one.
  78. haplology
    sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant
  79. analogy
    the process of inventing a new element in conformity with some part of the language system you already know. (rarer word = more likely to be affected by analogy)

    Example: mouse is mice so house must be hice.
  80. 5 or 6??? romance languages
    • 1 Portuguese
    • 2 Spanish
    • 3 Italian
    • 4 Provencal
    • 5 French
    • 6 Romanish
  81. isogloss
    dividing lines for pairs of features in dialects
  82. glottochronology
    method of dating languages of families. relies on the idea that very common words are highly resistent to change.
  83. case
    inflectional form that indicates a word's grammatical function
  84. declension
    Inflection that indicates number, case, and gender.

    The inflection of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case (nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and gender.
  85. Grimm's law
  86. gradation or ablaut
    Vowels altering in related forms. (sing, sang, sung). Specific vowels that do this are called a grade
  87. How did celtic place names remain in the language
    it was easier than renaming everything
  88. keltic influence?
    Nope. They were inferior so their language died out.
  89. runic alphabet developed in English in 7th century
    futhorc (p. 113)
  90. front mutation or i-umlaut or i-mutation (p. 121)
    a series of changes to vowels which took place when there was an i or j in the second syllable. The i or j disappeared or changed to e. Accounts for differences in related vowels like dole and deal.
  91. 4 cases used today
    nominative, accusitive, genetive, dative (p. 123)
  92. Norman conquest (p. 144).
  93. 13th century
    English began to reemerge. Tipping from French to English
  94. 14th century
    English becomes official language
  95. assimilation p. 42
    the changing of a sound under the influence of a neighboring sound. As in, skamt became scant. The /n/ changed under influence of the /t/
  96. haplology p. 42
    sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables begin with the same consonant. Ex. temporary pronounced tempory. Or excuse me becomse scuse me.
  97. dropping consonants p. 42
    Christmas is now Chrismas, and Knight is now night.
  98. extra phonemes added p. 42
    Thunder used to be thuner. By normal developement this would have not happened but somewhere the /d/ cropped up. Probably added because with it, it calls for less precise movement of the speech organs.
  99. Grimm's Law
    predicts the change in consonants (how they have happened, so they will happen that way again). Specific changes on p. 97
  100. dialect leveling and confluence
    dialects blend into each other and become one general dialect.
  101. Hamitic p. 53
    Ancestor of language of Ancient Egypt which is today Arabic, Coptic, spoken in North Africa and Somali
  102. Semantic p. 52
    ancestor of moabite, phoenician, aramaic, and Hebrew. Also part of Hamitic.
Card Set
History of English midterm
For ENG 327 midterm