was developed by Robert Fentz; noticed that babies tend to look at some things more than others. so they are able to discern objects and able to see the world
Visual interest test
What are the three categories under the preference for patterned over plain targets?
- 1. minimum separable acuity
- 2. contrast sensitivity
- 3. color perception
1. How well you can see
2. they prefer more than fewer
3. prefer larger more than smaller
they are the same as adults
Minimum separable acuity
1. by 6 months same as adults
Hue, saturation and brightness
more red or less red
shiny or dull red
What is speech perception?
- deals with High amplitude sucking.
- 2. how babies can make distincitions with phonemes
Who is really bad at speech perception?
People that have dyslexic siblings.
What did Fagan say about babies regarding face-nonface?
- He said that babies knowledge increases in an order.
- 2 If babies were shown a checker board they are more likely to look at a face since it is more rounded and more curved
What did Tourati say?
- In general babies dont see faces but prefer curves.
- 2. by four months, they can distinguish face like from non face like
At five-six months what can a baby do?
- They can distinguish male faces from female faces and also old from young.
- 2. they cannot defferentiate one male face from another male face
a set of items forms a category if new items can be distinguished between them.
When photos were put upside down they were not distinguishable. So babies must look at pictures as a whole
babies learn through expertise, which is how they distinguish faces. They get a reaction in the fusa form
What are the methods for infant cognition?
- 1. paired-comparisons
- 2. object examination
- 3. habituation-dishabituation
- 4. high-amplitude sucking
- 5. instrumental learning
- 6. imitation
by fagan; show baby a picture for 30 seconds, then pair with another, but switching the left/right position. spend time looking at new target
Holly Ruff, same procedure as paired comparisons but used objects instead of pictures
Les cohen. showed pictures till it led to habituation then showed a new picture which led to dishabituation
when a baby first sees an object it will display high amplitude sucking but eventually it will decrease over time. when a new photo comes on then the rate will increase again
High amplitude sucking
2. babies foot is attached to a mobile.
3. the babies will remembet that a mobile moved but wont remember why. then will wonder why it is not moving when the foot is not attached
andy meltzoff. gave babies an object then took it away. picked the object and made a sound. they they give it back to the baby adn then they imitated teh act
what influences changes on knowledge?
- 1. age
- 2. lasting knowledge
- 3. knowledge is not easily disrupted
- 3. short experiences are great for growing knowledge
Infants have two ages what are they?
Gestation adn post natal age (conceptual age)
gestational age + post natal age
What did Warner and Sigueleren determine?
that babies can recognize and can discriminate a pattern. infants are ready to learn once they are born
What did Decasper determine?
babies remember stories read to them in the womb.
does heart rate accelerate with novel objects?
when does the heartrate accelearte?
when objects are similar
at what age can babies distinguish 2 things?
- instrumental learning. with the mobile
- 2. baby remembers the mobile moves again if they move their leg
showed a video of a women doing different things. babies remember faces or activities for at least 7 weeks
babies can immediately recreate a puzzle set of some sort once you show them
babies can retain a good amount. a situation can be remembered 2 years later.
what did fagan say in regards to babies knowledge?
He said knowledge gained by babies is lasting
babies process info based on
- 1. tendency to repeat actions
- 2. "" to immitate
- 3. have more ability to recall with age
- 4. come into the work with the ability to learn
- 5. lengthy exposure to different things, their distinction changes over time
- 6. very long term memory, by 9 mo. memory is long lasting
Serial position effect
- Ed cornell
- 2. can remember things in the beginning and at the end
- spaced practice-means better recall
- massed practice less recall
things that stay the same even though other things change
recognition of invariance
an infant after seeing example from the same category, looks at information from a new category.
ability of infants to construct categories similar to adults. no special processes are needed.
argued against quinn
babies have expectations for events.
15 legged man
2. coppelston says we can imagine anything but doing things can be err.
3. all theoretical construct is imaginary but we lessen this by making it
systematic, operational and utility
3 views of intelligence
- 1. Piaget and the cognitive developmental approach.
- 2. psychometric approach
- 3. information processing approach
stage of intelligence differ with age
Piaget and the cognitive developmental approach
2. intelligence is uniform
3. multiple intelligence
Jenson and the G factor
intelligence is uniform
2. three kinds of intelligences
10 kinds of intelligences
- intelligence is processing
- 2. information processing approach
Is intelligence continuous or discontinuous?
How do you determine IQ?
by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying that number by 100
What does processing info depend on?
depends on intellingence
Where does information come from?
our culture and from what we know
how well we process depends on what?
our genetic plan and the effects of biophysical environment on our brain
What does an IQ measure?
it measures how much we know based on others
what is the psychometric approach?
single vs multiple intelligence
G factor and single inteligence was determined by who?
problem with multiple intelligences?
tests test different intelligences
who thought of the theory of multiple intelligences
intelligence can be analyitcal, creative or practical
What does equal opportunity of exposure mean?
- 1. everyone who has taken an intelligence has the same opportunity to learn the material
- 2. assumes that opportunity to learn is not the same. rejects the equal opportunity theory
- 3. believes that how well person processes and information given by culture affects, but not multiple intelligences. people score similarly have same training and faster processsing
- 4. single knowledge known as info processing
What chemical shows high levels that disrupts attention to novelty?
who has high levels of s100 beta?
down syndrome and alzehimers victims
what class of genes lead to lasting change in knowledge
which person said hypothermia reduces attention to novelty;
What did tsien say?
learning and memory in mice is genetically enhanced. studied chemical receptor NR2B helps build protein NMDA
what does increasing NMDA mean when you increase it?
how sensitive you are to the condition under discussion?
how specific is the test for picking out normality?
- Profoundly retarded
- severley handicapped
- autistic children
- rett syndrome
- closed head injury