PSCL 379

  1. was developed by Robert Fentz; noticed that babies tend to look at some things more than others. so they are able to discern objects and able to see the world
    Visual interest test
  2. What are the three categories under the preference for patterned over plain targets?
    • 1. minimum separable acuity
    • 2. contrast sensitivity
    • 3. color perception
  3. 1. How well you can see
    2. they prefer more than fewer
    3. prefer larger more than smaller
    they are the same as adults
    Minimum separable acuity
  4. Brightness
    1. by 6 months same as adults
    Contrast sensitivity
  5. Hue, saturation and brightness
    color perception
  6. color
  7. Saturation
    more red or less red
  8. shiny or dull red
  9. What is speech perception?
    • deals with High amplitude sucking.
    • 2. how babies can make distincitions with phonemes
  10. Who is really bad at speech perception?
    People that have dyslexic siblings.
  11. What did Fagan say about babies regarding face-nonface?
    • He said that babies knowledge increases in an order.
    • 2 If babies were shown a checker board they are more likely to look at a face since it is more rounded and more curved
  12. What did Tourati say?
    • In general babies dont see faces but prefer curves.
    • 2. by four months, they can distinguish face like from non face like
  13. At five-six months what can a baby do?
    • They can distinguish male faces from female faces and also old from young.
    • 2. they cannot defferentiate one male face from another male face
  14. a set of items forms a category if new items can be distinguished between them.
    Elanor Gibson
  15. When photos were put upside down they were not distinguishable. So babies must look at pictures as a whole
  16. babies learn through expertise, which is how they distinguish faces. They get a reaction in the fusa form
    Elizabeth Gathea
  17. What are the methods for infant cognition?
    • 1. paired-comparisons
    • 2. object examination
    • 3. habituation-dishabituation
    • 4. high-amplitude sucking
    • 5. instrumental learning
    • 6. imitation
  18. by fagan; show baby a picture for 30 seconds, then pair with another, but switching the left/right position. spend time looking at new target
  19. Holly Ruff, same procedure as paired comparisons but used objects instead of pictures
    Object examination
  20. Les cohen. showed pictures till it led to habituation then showed a new picture which led to dishabituation
  21. when a baby first sees an object it will display high amplitude sucking but eventually it will decrease over time. when a new photo comes on then the rate will increase again
    High amplitude sucking
  22. Carolyn Collier
    2. babies foot is attached to a mobile.
    3. the babies will remembet that a mobile moved but wont remember why. then will wonder why it is not moving when the foot is not attached
    Instrumental learning
  23. andy meltzoff. gave babies an object then took it away. picked the object and made a sound. they they give it back to the baby adn then they imitated teh act
  24. what influences changes on knowledge?
    • 1. age
    • 2. lasting knowledge
    • 3. knowledge is not easily disrupted
    • 3. short experiences are great for growing knowledge
  25. Infants have two ages what are they?
    Gestation adn post natal age (conceptual age)
  26. 32/40 weeks
    gestational age
  27. 20 weeks
    post natal age
  28. gestational age + post natal age
    conceptual age
  29. What did Warner and Sigueleren determine?
    that babies can recognize and can discriminate a pattern. infants are ready to learn once they are born
  30. What did Decasper determine?
    babies remember stories read to them in the womb.
  31. does heart rate accelerate with novel objects?
  32. when does the heartrate accelearte?
    when objects are similar
  33. at what age can babies distinguish 2 things?
    5 months
  34. Carolyn Collier
    • instrumental learning. with the mobile
    • 2. baby remembers the mobile moves again if they move their leg
  35. Lauren Bahrick
    showed a video of a women doing different things. babies remember faces or activities for at least 7 weeks
  36. Patricia Bauer
    babies can immediately recreate a puzzle set of some sort once you show them
  37. Rachel Clifton
    babies can retain a good amount. a situation can be remembered 2 years later.
  38. what did fagan say in regards to babies knowledge?
    He said knowledge gained by babies is lasting
  39. babies process info based on
    • 1. tendency to repeat actions
    • 2. "" to immitate
    • 3. have more ability to recall with age
    • 4. come into the work with the ability to learn
    • 5. lengthy exposure to different things, their distinction changes over time
    • 6. very long term memory, by 9 mo. memory is long lasting
  40. Serial position effect
    • Ed cornell
    • 2. can remember things in the beginning and at the end
  41. massed-spaced effect
    • spaced practice-means better recall
    • massed practice less recall
  42. things that stay the same even though other things change
    recognition of invariance
  43. an infant after seeing example from the same category, looks at information from a new category.
  44. Paul Quinn
    ability of infants to construct categories similar to adults. no special processes are needed.
  45. Kagan
    argued against quinn
  46. Klaxton
    babies have expectations for events.
  47. 15 legged man
    2. coppelston says we can imagine anything but doing things can be err.
    3. all theoretical construct is imaginary but we lessen this by making it
    systematic, operational and utility
  48. 3 views of intelligence
    • 1. Piaget and the cognitive developmental approach.
    • 2. psychometric approach
    • 3. information processing approach
  49. stage of intelligence differ with age
    Piaget and the cognitive developmental approach
  50. IQ tests
    2. intelligence is uniform
    3. multiple intelligence
    psychometric intelligence
  51. Jenson and the G factor
    intelligence is uniform
  52. Triarchic view
    2. three kinds of intelligences
    Robert Sternberg
  53. Howard Gardner
    10 kinds of intelligences
  54. Hellen Bee
    • intelligence is processing
    • 2. information processing approach
  55. Is intelligence continuous or discontinuous?
  56. How do you determine IQ?
    by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying that number by 100
  57. What does processing info depend on?
    depends on intellingence
  58. Where does information come from?
    our culture and from what we know
  59. how well we process depends on what?
    our genetic plan and the effects of biophysical environment on our brain
  60. What does an IQ measure?
    it measures how much we know based on others
  61. what is the psychometric approach?
    single vs multiple intelligence
  62. G factor and single inteligence was determined by who?
    Aruthur Jensen
  63. problem with multiple intelligences?
    tests test different intelligences
  64. who thought of the theory of multiple intelligences
    howard gardner
  65. intelligence can be analyitcal, creative or practical
    Robert sternberg
  66. What does equal opportunity of exposure mean?
    • 1. everyone who has taken an intelligence has the same opportunity to learn the material
    • 2. assumes that opportunity to learn is not the same. rejects the equal opportunity theory
    • 3. believes that how well person processes and information given by culture affects, but not multiple intelligences. people score similarly have same training and faster processsing
    • 4. single knowledge known as info processing
  67. What chemical shows high levels that disrupts attention to novelty?
    s100 beta
  68. who has high levels of s100 beta?
    down syndrome and alzehimers victims
  69. what class of genes lead to lasting change in knowledge
  70. which person said hypothermia reduces attention to novelty;
  71. What did tsien say?
    learning and memory in mice is genetically enhanced. studied chemical receptor NR2B helps build protein NMDA
  72. what does increasing NMDA mean when you increase it?
    more knowledge
  73. how sensitive you are to the condition under discussion?
  74. how specific is the test for picking out normality?
  75. Special ppl?
    • HIV
    • Profoundly retarded
    • severley handicapped
    • autistic children
    • rett syndrome
    • closed head injury
Card Set
PSCL 379