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  1. William Jennings Bryan
    gave �Cross of Gold� speech as Populist presidential candidate
  2. Sand Creek Massacre
    � marked beginning of U.S. war against Native American
  3. Battle of Little Big Horn
    � largest Indian victory over U.S. army � defeat of General Custer
  4. Battle of Wounded Knee
    � marked end of U.S. war against Native Americans in 1890
  5. Dawes Severalty Act
    � gave land tracts to individual Indian families
  6. Interstate Commerce Act
    � began federal government regulation of railroads
  7. Omaha Platform
    � demands of Populist party in 1896 elec.
  8. Gold standard
    � dollars backed only by gold
  9. Bimetallism
    � dollars backed with gold AND silver
  10. Greenbacks
    � currency issued by gov�t during Civil War, not backed by metal
  11. Edwin Drake
    � used steam engine to drill for oil
  12. George Westinghouse
    � invented the air brake for RRs, thus making them safer
  13. Andrew Carnegie
    � used Bessemer process for steel production, wrote Gospel of Wealth
  14. John Rockefeller
    � Standard Oil
  15. J.P. Morgan
    � banking, U.S. Steel
  16. Cornelius Vanderbilt
    � railroads
  17. Horatio Alger
    • � wrote �rags to riches� novels of Gilded age
    • Samuel Gompers
    • � labor union organizer � led American Federation of Labor
  18. Eugene Debs
    � labor organizer
  19. Jane Addams
    � began settlement house movement with Hull House
  20. Boss Tweed
    � head of Tammany Hall, powerful NY political machine
  21. Thomas Nast
    � political cartoonist, exposed Tweed corruption
  22. Sherman Antitrust Act
    �trusts & monopolies illegal
  23. Gentlemen�s Agreement
    � limited Japanese immigration
  24. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    � federal jobs to be awarded on basis of merit
  25. Vertical integration
    � a company takes over companies that contribute to production of product, including suppliers and transportation
  26. Horizontal integration
    � merging of companies that produce similar products
  27. Referendum
    � vote by general public to accept or reject an initiative
  28. Mugwumps
    � republicans who voted for Grover Cleveland, a democrat, in election of 1884
  29. Square Deal
    � program of progressive reforms by Roosevelt administration
  30. Carrie A. Nation
    � fought against the evils of alcohol with a Bible and a hatchet
  31. Booker T. Washington
    � civil rights activist who urged blacks to work to improve selves and earn racial equality, gave �Atlanta Compromise� speech
  32. W.E.B. Dubois
    � civil rights activist who demanded immediate racial equality and helped found NAACP
  33. Anthracite Coal Strike
    � federal gov�t (T.R.) intervened to arbitrate and settle
  34. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
    � �separate but equal� public facilities for different races is constitutional
  35. 17th Amendment
    � direct election of senators
  36. Federal Reserve Act
    � created a national banking system with regional control
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