Chpt. 24

  1. ______ uses raw materials to synthesize essential compounds.

    A) anabolism
  2. _____ decomposes substances to provide energy cells need to function.

    B) catabolism
  3. Catabolic rxns require

    C) both
  4. _____ is produced by the serous membrane lining and provides essential lubrication between the parietal and visceral surfaces.

    D) peritoneal fluid
  5. Thick, mesenterial sheet that provides stability and suspends all by the first 10" of the SI.

    C) mesentary proper
  6. Which is NOT a major layer of the digestive tract?

    C) endothelium
  7. The _______ is the inner lining of the digestive tract. It is a mucous membrane consisting of epithelium and the lamina propria.

    C) mucosa
  8. _________ secrete hormones that coordinate activities of the GI tract and accessory organs.

    B) enteroendocrine cells
  9. _________ contains BV's, sensory nerve endings, lymphatic vessels and smooth muscle cells in the GI tract.

    B) lamina propria
  10. ______ narrow band of smooth muscle and elastic fibers in the lamina propria.

    D) muscularis mucosae
  11. _______ is a dense, irregular CT layer that has large BVs and lymphatic vessels. It may contain exocrine glands that secrete buffers and enzymes into the GI tract.

    C) submucosa
  12. The submucosal plexus contains

    A) sensory neurons
  13. The ________ is dominated by smooth muscle cells that are arranged in circular layers. Involved in mechanical processing, movement of materials along the GI tract, and movements coordinated by the ENS (enteric nervous system).

    B) muscularis externa
  14. _______________ control the rhythmic cycles of GI activity.

    B) pacesetter cells
  15. ________ are neural mechanisms that are responsible for local reflexes and work completely with the GI tract; don't use the brain/CNS.

    B) short reflexes
  16. ________ are neural mechanisms that have a higher level of control of digestion and glandular activities; controls the movement throughout the GI tract and uses the parasympathetic fibers and the CNS.

    A) long reflexes
  17. Hormonal mechanisms of the GI tract include at least 18 peptide hormones that are produced by _________ and reach the target organs after distribution in the bloodstream.

    D) enteroendocrine cells
  18. __________ coordinate response due to changing conditions (ie pH) and affects only a part of the tract.

    B) local mechanisms
  19. ________ is a mineralized matrix on teeth that is similar to that of bone; does not contain cells.

    C) dentin
  20. Which is NOT a layer of the esophageal wall?

    B) serosa
  21. Major function(s) of the stomach:

    E) all of these
  22. Intrinsic factor is produced in the:

    A) stomach
  23. Pepsinogen is converted by ___ to pepsin in the gastric lumen.

    C) HCL
  24. The ________ receives chyme from the stomach and digestive secretions from the pancreas/liver and neutralizes acids before they can damage the absorptive surfaces of the SI.

    A) duodenum
  25. The ___________ is the location of most of the chemical digestion and nutrient absorption in the SI.

    A) jejunum
  26. The _______ is the longest part of the SI. It finishes the absorption and ends in the ileocecal valve.

    C) ileum
  27. _________ are openings from the intestinal glands that are entrances for brush border enzymes.

    A) Crypts of Lieberkuhn
  28. _______ produce large amounts of mucus when chyme arrieves from the stomach.

    C) duodenal glands
  29. The ___________ stimulates motility and secretion along the entire small intestine.

    A) Gastroenteric
  30. The ___________ triggers the relaxation of the ileocecal valve and allows materials to pass from the SI to the LI.

    C) Gastroileal reflex
  31. ________ are blind pockets that make up a bulk of the pancreas.

    B) pancreatic acini
  32. _____ cells of the pancreas secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.

    A) endocrine
  33. Exocrine cells secrete:

    D) pancreatic juice
  34. Hepatic blood supply: 1/3 comes from the ____, 2/3 comes from the _____

    A) hepatic artery, hepatic portal
  35. Liver cells that absorb solutes from plasma and secrete materials such as plasma proteins.

    B) hepatocytes
  36. T/F: The liver is the larest blood reservoir in the body
    T!!! Woooooah! :)
  37. The Gallbladder:

    D) all of these
  38. _____ stimulates the release of bile into the duodenum

    D) CCP (cholecystokinin)
  39. _____ innervation prepares the digestive tract for activity

    A) parasympathetic
  40. The appendix is a ______ organ

    C) Lymphatic
  41. The wall of the colon forms a serious of pouches called _______ that permit for the expansion and elongation of the colon.

    B) haustra
  42. The ______ anal sphincter has a circular muscle layer of smooth muscle cells that are not under voluntary control.

    B) internal
  43. The ____ anal sphincter is a ring of skeletal muscle fibers that are under voluntary control.
    a) internal
    b) external
    c) dirty
  44. Which of the following is TRUE about the histology of the large intestine?

    A) all of these
  45. Which is NOT a vitamin produced by the Large Intestine?

    D) vitamin E
  46. Process of breaking molecular bonds in large organic molecules

    C) hydrolysis
  47. Renin targets ___ and is secreted only in _____.

    D) milk proteins, infants
Card Set
Chpt. 24
Anatomy exam 3 cards, Digestion