______ uses raw materials to synthesize essential compounds.
_____ decomposes substances to provide energy cells need to function.
Catabolic rxns require
_____ is produced by the serous membrane lining and provides essential lubrication between the parietal and visceral surfaces.
D) peritoneal fluid
Thick, mesenterial sheet that provides stability and suspends all by the first 10" of the SI.
C) mesentary proper
Which is NOT a major layer of the digestive tract?
The _______ is the inner lining of the digestive tract. It is a mucous membrane consisting of epithelium and the lamina propria.
_________ secrete hormones that coordinate activities of the GI tract and accessory organs.
B) enteroendocrine cells
_________ contains BV's, sensory nerve endings, lymphatic vessels and smooth muscle cells in the GI tract.
B) lamina propria
______ narrow band of smooth muscle and elastic fibers in the lamina propria.
D) muscularis mucosae
_______ is a dense, irregular CT layer that has large BVs and lymphatic vessels. It may contain exocrine glands that secrete buffers and enzymes into the GI tract.
The submucosal plexus contains
A) sensory neurons
The ________ is dominated by smooth muscle cells that are arranged in circular layers. Involved in mechanical processing, movement of materials along the GI tract, and movements coordinated by the ENS (enteric nervous system).
B) muscularis externa
_______________ control the rhythmic cycles of GI activity.
B) pacesetter cells
________ are neural mechanisms that are responsible for local reflexes and work completely with the GI tract; don't use the brain/CNS.
B) short reflexes
________ are neural mechanisms that have a higher level of control of digestion and glandular activities; controls the movement throughout the GI tract and uses the parasympathetic fibers and the CNS.
A) long reflexes
Hormonal mechanisms of the GI tract include at least 18 peptide hormones that are produced by _________ and reach the target organs after distribution in the bloodstream.
D) enteroendocrine cells
__________ coordinate response due to changing conditions (ie pH) and affects only a part of the tract.
B) local mechanisms
________ is a mineralized matrix on teeth that is similar to that of bone; does not contain cells.
Which is NOT a layer of the esophageal wall?
Major function(s) of the stomach:
E) all of these
Intrinsic factor is produced in the:
Pepsinogen is converted by ___ to pepsin in the gastric lumen.
The ________ receives chyme from the stomach and digestive secretions from the pancreas/liver and neutralizes acids before they can damage the absorptive surfaces of the SI.
The ___________ is the location of most of the chemical digestion and nutrient absorption in the SI.
The _______ is the longest part of the SI. It finishes the absorption and ends in the ileocecal valve.
_________ are openings from the intestinal glands that are entrances for brush border enzymes.
A) Crypts of Lieberkuhn
_______ produce large amounts of mucus when chyme arrieves from the stomach.
C) duodenal glands
The ___________ stimulates motility and secretion along the entire small intestine.
The ___________ triggers the relaxation of the ileocecal valve and allows materials to pass from the SI to the LI.
C) Gastroileal reflex
________ are blind pockets that make up a bulk of the pancreas.
B) pancreatic acini
_____ cells of the pancreas secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
Exocrine cells secrete:
D) pancreatic juice
Hepatic blood supply: 1/3 comes from the ____, 2/3 comes from the _____
A) hepatic artery, hepatic portal
Liver cells that absorb solutes from plasma and secrete materials such as plasma proteins.
T/F: The liver is the larest blood reservoir in the body
T!!! Woooooah! :)
D) all of these
_____ stimulates the release of bile into the duodenum
D) CCP (cholecystokinin)
_____ innervation prepares the digestive tract for activity
The appendix is a ______ organ
The wall of the colon forms a serious of pouches called _______ that permit for the expansion and elongation of the colon.
The ______ anal sphincter has a circular muscle layer of smooth muscle cells that are not under voluntary control.
The ____ anal sphincter is a ring of skeletal muscle fibers that are under voluntary control.
Which of the following is TRUE about the histology of the large intestine?
A) all of these
Which is NOT a vitamin produced by the Large Intestine?
D) vitamin E
Process of breaking molecular bonds in large organic molecules