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  1. What does the alveolar epithelium consist of?

    D) all of these
  2. What do Type 1 pneumocytes do?
    create gas exchange
  3. Function of type 2 pneumocytes
    produce surfactant
  4. ______ defines the relationship between gas pressure and volume as P= 1/V
    Boyle's law
  5. _______ is the ability for the lungs to expand
  6. Low compliance requires ______ force

    A) greater
  7. _____ is the amount of air moved in/out of lungs in a single respiratory cycle
    Tidal volume
  8. The most important respiratory muscle is

    D) the diaphragm
  9. ______ is the volume of air remaining in conducting passages.

    A) anatomic dead space
  10. According to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, when pH drops, ____ oxygen is released

    C) more
  11. According to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, when temperature rises, ____ oxygen is released

    A) more
  12. According to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, when temperature drops, ____ oxygen is released

    B) less
  13. Which of the following does NOT stimulate inspiration?

    C) low O2 levels
  14. Carbon dioxode is mostly carried in the blood stream via

    C) is converted and carried as carbonic acid
  15. ______ consists of waves of muscular contractions that move the bolus along the GI tract.

    C) peristolsis
  16. _________ is the cycle of contractions that mixes/churns the bolus; doesn't follow a set pattern.

    B) segmentation
  17. _________ is 99% water and is made up of mucous secretions (acts as buffer/lubricant), secretes enzymes (salivary amylase) and dissolves chemicals.

    C) salivary glands
  18. _____ secrete intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid (HCL).

    D) parietal cells
  19. _____ secrete pepsinogen.

    C) chief cells
  20. _____ produce gastrin.

    D) G cells
  21. ____ release somatostatin (inhibits release of gastrin)

    D) D cells
  22. _______ is a brush border enzyme that activates trypsinogen into trypsin, which then activates other enzymes.

    C) enteropeptidase
  23. ______ produce intestinal hormones such as gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin

    B) enteroendocrine cells
  24. ______ is a carbohydrase that breaks down starch

    C) pancreatic alpha-amylase
  25. ____________ breaks down complex lipids and releases products that are easily absorbed

    D) pancreatic lipase
  26. ________ breaks down nucleic acids

    A) nucleases
  27. __________ can break apart certain proteins; secreted as inactive proenzymes then activated after reaching the SI.

    D) proteolytic enzymes
  28. Proteases break down _A_ proteins and peptidases break down _B_ peptides into amino acids.

    A) large, small
  29. ______ increases secretion of bile and buffs.

    A) secretin
  30. ______ accelerates pancreatic production/secretion of digestive enzymes.

    B) CCK
  31. ______ relaxes the hepatopancreatic sphincter and gallbladder.

    A) CCK
  32. ____ is secreted when fats and carbs enter the SI; inhibits gastric secretions in the stomach.

    B) GIP
  33. _____ is secreted by G cells in the duodenum

    D) gastrin
  34. ______ increases stomach motility and stimulates acid/enzyme production.

    A) gastrin
  35. Which is NOT a function of the Large Intestine?

    B) absorption of lactose
  36. _____ is required by the liver for synthesizing clotting factors.

    A) vitamin K
  37. ______ is important in glucose metabolism.

    D) biotoin
  38. ____ is required in the manufacture of steriod hormones and some neurotransmitters (can get from the diet).

    B) pantothenic acid
  39. Enteropeptidase breaks down ____ into _____.

    B) Trypsinogen into trypsin
  40. The _____ contains all organic building blocks cell needs to provide energy and to create new cellular components.

    D) nutrient pool
  41. ____ breaks down glucose in cytosol into smaller molecules used by mitochondria

    D) glycolysis
  42. The function of the TCA cycle (citric acid cycle) is:

    A) to remove H atoms from organic molecules and transfer them to coenzymes
  43. ____ enters the TCA cycle and produces the citric acid which starts the TCA cycle; more important part of the cycle.

    C) Acetyl CoA
  44. ______ is the generation of ATP within the mitochondria at productes more than 90% of ATP used by the body.

    C) oxidative phosporylation
  45. ____________ is the most important mechanism for generation of ATP

    D) oxidative phosphorylation
  46. _________ is the synthesis of glucose

    C) gluconeogenesis
  47. _______ is the formation of glycogen from glucose

    D) glycogenesis
  48. ____ is the breakdown of glucogen to glucose

    B) glycogenolysis
  49. ______ series of reactions that breaks down fatty acids, which leave a shorter carbon chain that becomes acetyl-coA

    C) beta oxidation
  50. Object loses heat energy as infrared radiation

    D) radiation
  51. Direct transfer of energy through physical contact

    D) conduction
  52. Results from conductive heat loss to air at body surfaces

    A) convection
  53. Absorbs energy, cools surface where evaporation occurs

    • A) evaporation
    • a) radiation

    b) conduction

    c) convection

    d) evaporationd
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Anatomy Exam 3, things to remember