Behav sem3

  1. Risk
    • Incidence/population (only include population at risk)
    • risk of ovarian cancer would exclude males
    • d/N diseased as a percent of everyone including themselves
  2. Odd
    • incidence/(pop.-incidence)
    • ratio of newly diseased to none diseased pop
    • diseased over healthy
  3. Rate
    • this is used a lot by ricketts
    • Prevalence/population at risk(doesn't include diseased)
    • There is a time frame involved with rate
    • or rate can be prevalence/person-time
    • Person-time = (number of people how are at risk but doesn't have the disease)*(the number of years those people are at risk but did not have the diesease)
    • Rate is always in person years
  4. Prevalence
    • when duration (D) and incidence (I) of a disease is stable
    • Prevalence can be estimated as P = I(ncidence)*D(uration)
    • Prevalence is number of cases times how long thoses cases last
  5. age rate vs crude rate
    • age rate are population and incident rates for a specific age group
    • crude rate do not have an age limitation
  6. infant mortality rate
    death before 1 yrs / total number of live birth
  7. case fatality rate vs. cause specific mortality
    • case fatality = % dead of all who has a given a cause
    • Cause specific mortality = % dead of given cause in the population
  8. Clinical phase I
    • test for safty and toxicity
    • must complete pre-clinical animal studies for safty
    • 20-80 subjects
  9. Clinical Phase II
    • Initial treatment effects
    • Small scale study into effectiveness and safety
    • 200-200 patient
    • can be used to select for best drug of the class
  10. Clinical Phase III
    • Full scale evaluation of treatment efficacy
    • what is meant by "clinical trials"
    • Comparing drugs to current treatment standards for efficacy
  11. Clinical Phase IV
    • Monitoring patients for adverse effects
    • long term studies of morbidity and mortality
  12. Control group treatment
    • currently unethical to give placebo to study a disease that is potentially harmful without treatment
    • So best standard treatment must be given as control
  13. Factorial Design trials
    • studies that evaluate more than one hypothesis
    • 2^n groups needed
    • n= number of hypothesis being tested
    • Each group recieves a unique combination of the multiple hypothesis being tested
  14. Cross over trials
    • Patients recieve treatment from both hypothesis
    • Both control and treatment are preformed on the same subject seperated by a washout period
  15. Ecological study
    • Observational, group data, analytical study
    • data analysis based on group (country or community)
    • can't draw individual conclusions
  16. Cross sectional study
    • Observational, individual data, descriptive study
    • Snap shot of a pop. or community, mainly measure prevalence
    • Can be analytical form if exposure factors are gathered and sub groups formed
    • Calculations Prevalence = (total diseased)/(total pop.)
  17. Cohort Study
    • Observational, individual data, either descriptive or analytical
    • study group chosen based on exposure vs. none exposure
    • NOT chosen based on outcome
    • Can be retrospective
    • calulations includes Risk (diseased)/(total pop.)
    • and Odd (diseased)/(healthy) where healthy= total pop.-diseased
  18. Relative risk or odds ratio
    • same SHIT
    • Risk(exposure)/Risk(none exposure)
    • Odd(exposure)Odd(none exposure)
  19. Case control
    • Interested outcome is already known and selected based on outcome.
    • Include controls without disease but paatients are selected based on knonw outcome.
    • you can ONLY calculate Odds and Odds ratio for case control NOT risk or relative risk
    • mainly for rare diseases and multiple exposures
  20. how do you measure
    • rate (Prevalence)/(person years suseptable)
    • risk (disease)/(population total)
    • odd (disease)/(healthy)
    • prevalence (incidence)*(duration) or just how many people have it
  21. Types of prevention
    • Primordial -> change social prevalence of health risk (tax cigarrets and excercise)
    • Primary -> decrease risk prior to symptoms (reduce ciagrret smoking and impliment weight loss plan)
    • Secondary -> Disease identification (screen fat people for diabetes)
    • Tertiary -> treat the disease and complication (treat lung cancer and diabetes)
Card Set
Behav sem3
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