Surgical Tech certification

  1. 3 types of active transport
    • Physiological pump
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
  2. 3 types of passive transport
    • diffusion
    • osmosis
    • filtration
  3. 4 major classes of microorganisms
    • bacteria
    • helminths
    • rickettsiae
    • viruses
  4. 5 types of relationships between microbes
    • independence
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
    • symbiosis
    • parasitism
  5. Independence as pertains to microbiology
    2 different kinds of organisms living independently without affecting each other
  6. Mutualism as pertains to microbiology
    Each organism derives some benefit from the other
  7. Commensalism as it pertains to microbiology
    One organism receives benefit from another organism but couses it no harm
  8. Symbiosis as it pertains to microbiology
    The living together of two different kinds of organisms
  9. Parasitism as it pertains to microbiology
    One organism derives benefit from another organism at the other's expense
  10. Define endotoxin
    Soluble toxins secreted by microbes into thier surroundings, including host tissues, from Gram negative bacteria. Have non-specific effects
  11. Define exotoxin
    Soluable substances secreted into host tissues, small amount of which can cause great harm to host
  12. Examples of Gram negative rods
    • Pseurdomonas aeruginosa
    • Helicobacter pylori
  13. Examples of Aerobic Gram-negative cocci
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • N. meningitides
  14. Examples of Aerobic gram-positive rods
    • Bacillus anthracis
    • B. cereus
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Corynebacterium diptheriae
  15. Examples of Anaerobic gram-positive bacteria
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • C. tetani
  16. Examples of Facultative anaerobic gram-negative rods
    • Gardnerella vaginalis
    • Escherichia coli
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • Salmonella typhi
  17. 5 transmission pathways for microorganisms
    • Direct contact
    • Indirect contact
    • Droplets
    • Vehicles
    • Vectors
  18. Describe direct contact transmission
    Requires bodily contact between a healthy person and a person who is a carrier or has the disease.
  19. Describe indirect contact transmission
    Includes spread of contagious disease by fomites e.g. dishes, doorknobs and money
  20. Describe droplet transmission
    Occurs when an infected person coughs, sneezes or speaks near others
  21. Describe vehicle transmission of disease
    Occurs through a nonliving carrier of an infectious agent, including water, air, food, blood and other body fluids
  22. Describe vector transmission of disease
    Living organisms that transmit diesase to people; examples are ticks, flies and lice
  23. 6 types of infections
    • Acute
    • Chronic
    • Latent
    • Mixed
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  24. Describe acute infections
    Runs a rapid or prolonged course, appears suddenly, is sever and terminates abruptly
  25. Describe chronic infections
    Runs a slow course over a long period of time
  26. Describe latent infections
    Infections inactive or hidden
  27. Describe mixed infections
    Infections caused by more than one organism
  28. Describe primary infections
    Primary infections
  29. Describe secondary infections
    An infection which follows or complicates the original
  30. Define active immunity
    The body's own immune system produces antibodies against an infectious agent.
  31. Name two types of active immunity
    • Naturally aquired
    • Passively aquired
  32. Define naturally aquired immunity
    Active immunity produced when a person is exposed to or contracts the disease and subsequently produces his or her own antibodies
  33. Define artificial active immunity
    Active immunity produced when an individual is given a vaccine
  34. Describe passive immunity
    Antibodies from an outside source are introduced into the body so that it does not have to produce its own.
  35. Name 2 types of passive immunity
    • Natural passive immunity
    • Artificial passive immunity
  36. An example of natural passive immunity
    When a mother's antibodies pass through the placenta or through breast milk to the fetus
  37. An example of artificial passive immunity
    Antibodies produced elsewhere are injected into the body in the form of immune serums
  38. Characteristics of rickettsiae
    • Smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses
    • Parasites
    • Transmission occurs via insects and animal vectors
  39. Characteristics of helminths
    • Multicellular animal parasites, commonly called worms
    • Largest organism responsible for human diseases
    • Usually transmitted through fecal contamination or by eating uncooked meat
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Surgical Tech certification