English Connectives

  1. In addition (to)
    Além disso

    as well (as)

    In addition to his flat in London, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.

    [C] something that has been added to something elseA secretary would be a welcome/useful addition to our staff.humorous I hear you're expecting a small addition to the family (= you are going to have a baby)!

    [C] the act of adding a substance or thing to something elseMost working environments are improved by the addition of (= adding) a few plants and pictures.
  2. Furthermore

    além disso, ademais, outrossim, demais

    in addition; more importantly

    I suggest we use Barkers as our main suppliers - they're good and furthermore they're cheap.
  3. Moreover

    (além disso, aliás, ademai, salém do mais, além de que, de mais a mais)

    (used to add information) also and more importantly

    The whole report is badly written. Moreover, it's inaccurate.
  4. Besides
    • advérbio (além de, além disso, também, ademais, outrossim)
    • preposição (exceto, fora de, salvo, acima de)

    in addition to; also

    Do you play any other sports besides football and basketball?

    She won't mind your being late - besides, it's hardly your fault.
  5. Also
    advérbio (também, igualmente, além de)

    in addition

    She's a photographer and also writes books.

    I'm cold, and I'm also hungry and tired.
  6. As well
    advérbio (também)

    in addition (to)

    Invite Emlyn - and Simon as well.

    I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin.
  7. For one thing... for another thing
    Por um lado... por outro lado

    used to introduce a reason for something

    "Why won't you come to New York with me?"

    "For one thing, I don't like flying, and for another, I can't afford it."
  8. What's more
    used to add something surprising or interesting to what you have just said

    The decorations were absolutely beautiful and what's more, the children had made them themselves.
  9. Along with
    Ainda preciso pesquisar
  10. Neither ... Nor
    Nem... Nem

    used when you want to say that two or more things are not true

    Neither my mother nor my father went to university.

    They speak neither French nor German, but a curious mixture of the two.

    I neither know nor care what's happened to him.
  11. not only ... (but)
    Não só... (como também)

    also used to say that two related things are true or happened, especially when this is surprising or shocking

    Not only did he turn up late, he also forgot his books.

    If this project fails it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization.
  12. e.g.
    abbreviation for exempli gratia: a Latin phrase which means 'for example'. It can be pronounced as 'e.g.' or 'for example'You should eat more food that contains a lot of fibre, e.g. fruit, vegetables and bread.
  13. For instance
    for example

    In the electronics industry, for instance, 5000 jobs are being lost.
  14. Such as
    such as for example

    That sum of money is to cover costs such as travel and accommodation.
  15. Due to
    Devido a

    because of

    A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom.

    Due to wet leaves on the line, this train will arrive an hour late.
  16. Owing to
    because of

    The concert has been cancelled owing to lack of support.
  17. On account of (sth)
    Por causa de

    because of somethingHe doesn't drink alcohol on account of his health.
  18. On account of the fact that...
    Em virtude do fato de...
  19. Thanks to
    Graças a
  20. in view of (sth)
    because of a particular thing, or considering a particular factIn view of what you've said, I think we should reconsider our proposed course of action.
  21. Addition

    Coordinating Conjunctions

    Correlative Conjunctions

    Subordinating Conjunctions

    Linking adverbs/ Transition Words
    • Addition
    • Coordinating Conjunctions
    • and, also, and also

    • Correlative Conjunctions
    • both...and, not only ...also, not only ... but also, and...too, and so

    • Subordinating Conjunctions
    • besides, in addition to

    • Linking adverbs/ Transition Words
    • in addition, furthermore, moreover, additionally, besides

    These join two words, phrases or independent clause. They mostly occur mid-sentence with a comma placed before the conjunction. They may also occur at the beginning of a sentence – note.

    He talked and listened. (same subject)
    He talked, and I listened (different subjects)
    She was tired, so we left.
    • Additionand (also, and also)
    • Alternative (or, nor)
    • Cause-effect (so, for)
    • Condition (or else)
    • Contrast (but, yet, but still, but anyway) Place/Time/Comparison/Emphasis (there is no coordinating conjunction)

    These join equivalent sentence elements such as one noun phrase with another noun phrase. These occur as paired words. (Also see Focusing Adverbs.)

    Both his project and hers ended.

    Neither he nor she knows how to ski.

    You car uses more gas than this one.

    This computer is as fast as that one.
    • Additionand (both...and, not only ...also, not only ... but also, and...too, and so)
    • Alternative (either...or, neither...nor , rather than (1))
    • Cause-effect (so...that, such...that)
    • Condition (whether.. or not)
    • Comparison (as…as, more...than, less...than)
    • Contrast (whether.. or not)
    • Place/Time/Emphasis (there is no correlative conjunction)

    These join a dependent clause to an independent clause. They occur at the beginning of sentences with a comma separating the clause mid-sentence or they occur mid-sentence with no comma.

    Though it rained, we went.

    We went though it rained.

    Besides being cold, we were hungry.

    We were hungry besides being cold.
    • Additionand (besides, in addition to)
    • Alternative (rather than (2))
    • Cause-effect (because, since, now that, as, in order, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing to, so that, in order that, if only because)
    • Condition (if, only if, unless, even if, whether, whether or not, provided (that), in case, in the event (that))
    • Comparison (as (like), as if, as though)
    • Contrast (although, even though, though, while, whereas, despite, in spite of, regardless of)
    • Place (where, wherever)
    • Time (after, before, when, while, since, as, until, as soon as, by the time, once)
    • Emphasis (there is no subordinating conjunction)

    These join two independent clauses or sentences. They can be used at the beginning of a sentence or mid- sentence (with punctuation). They transition the reader from the thought of one sentence to the thought in the next.

    We wanted to go. However, it rained.

    We wanted to go; however, it rained.

    We wanted to go; it rained, however.

    In addition, it was windy and cold.
    • Additionand (in addition, furthermore, moreover, additionally, besides)
    • Alternative (therefore, consequently, as a consequence, as a result, thus, hence, accordingly)
    • Cause-effect (because, since, now that, as, in order, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing to, so that, in order that, if only because)
    • Condition (otherwise, in the event (that), anyway, anyhow)
    • Comparison (In the same way, Similarly, In contrast, Unlike X, Y)
    • Contrast (nevertheless, nonetheless, however, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast to, in contrast, on the contrary)
    • Emphasis (indeed, in fact, of course, certainly )
    • Time (first, second, next, then, finally, previously, now, presently, next, still, meanwhile, subsequently, afterward )
    • Place (there is no linking adverbs/transition words)
Card Set
English Connectives
English Connectives