Hemoglobin has a total of _______ protein chains in its quaternary structure.
In a typical amino acid zwitterion, the carboxylate end is
What process occurs when heat, acids, bases, and heavy metal ions cause a los of biological function of a protein?
In digestion, proteins are broken down into amino acids by a(n) ______ reaction.
Which of the following is NOT true for a competitive inhibitor?
D) It binds to the enzyme at a site remote from the active site.
A noncompetitive inhibitor
D) alters the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme
In any reaction catalyzed by an enzyme, the reaction molecule is called the
When a substance bonds to an enzyme for reaction, its place of binding is the
D) active site
In the induced-fit model of enzyme action, the enzyme active site
A) adjusts shape to adapt to the shape of the substrate
The function of the enzyme-substrate complex is to provide an alternative reaction pathway that
D) decreases the activation energy for the reaction
Consider an enzymatic reaction in which the initial concentration of substrate is low. If the amount of enzyme is held constant, but the amount of substrate is increased, the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction will
E) increase at first in a linear fashion, then remain at a constant high rate
An irreversible inhibitor is one that
D) binds covalently to the enzyme active site
Penicilin functions as an antibiotic by
D) inhibiting the enzymes for cell wall formation in bacteria
A compound that binds to the surface of an enzyme, and changes its shape so that a substrate cannot enter the active site, is called a(n)
D) noncompetitive inhibitor
When an end product from an enzyme-mediated sequence is also an inhibitor for an earlier step in the reaction sequence, the process is referred to as
A) feedback control
Allosteric enzymes can control their output of product by
E) binding a postive or negative regulator at a noncompetitive site
When a cofactor is a small organic molecule, it is known as a(n)
The B vitamins are examples of
B) water-soluble vitamins
A biological catalyst is called a(n) ______.
Enzymes that catalyze the same reactions but have slightly different structures are called _____.
A diet very low in vitamin C can lead over time to the condition _______.