1. hierarchy of control
    • 1.elimination
    • 2. prevention of exposure
    • 3. control- process change/engineering egs
    • 4. personal protection
    • 5.admin controls
  2. Health and safety at work act (HSAWA) 1974
    • primary legislation for h and s at work
    • employers ultimately responsible
  3. section 2 HSAWA
    duties of employers to their employees

    - employees must be aware of hazardous substances they are working with, must also be aware of symptoms to report early
  4. section3 HSAWA
    duties of employers to third parties
  5. section 6 HSAWA
    duties of manufacturers and suppliers
  6. section 7 and 8 HSAWA
    duties of employees- to take reasonable care of h and s himself and any other persons who may be affected by his actions/omissions at work.

    ~To cooperate with his employer as far as necessary so that duty/requirement can be complied with
  7. section 8 HSAWA
    no person shall intentionally or recklessly interfere or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare
  8. section 9 HSAWA
    • duty of employer
    • - not to charge employee for anything required for the purpose of complying with statutory provisions
  9. offences due to the fault of another person- section 36 HSAWA
    if another person acts or fails to act in a way that leads to the employer comitting an offence then that person may be liable.

    - role of competent advisors e.g. occ health professionals
  10. Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999?
    -employers must carry out assessments on all risks and reduce SFAIRP

    - ensure access to competent advice- inc doctors and health surveillance

    -provide appropriate info and training. Make arrangements to plan, organise, control and review measures.
  11. Duties of senior directors- HSAWA section 37
    if a senior director connived, consented or neglected to act in a way that leads to teh employer commiting an offence then he/she maybe liable
  12. COSHH- prevent or control exposure
    regulation 7
  13. COSHH health surveillance?
    • Regulation 11
    • schedule 6- need appointed doctors
    • - health effect related to exposure
    • -likely to occur in relation to work
    • -valid techniques
    • - health record must be kept 11yrs
  14. What to do in a case of occupational ill health?
    • employee told and advised
    • review risk assessment
    • review control measure
    • consider redeployment
    • review all other employees at risk
  15. Local environmental health officers are responsible for ?
    • non manufacturing injury
    • shops, offices, warehouses
    • residential and nursing homes
    • non h and s legislation
    • food hygiene/nuisance
  16. Control of lead at work regulations 2002
    • If exposure is significant-see regs- or if blood lead above 35mcg/dl or higher--need more monitoring.
    • - intial examination
    • - HB, blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin at suitable intervals
  17. some jobs causing lead exposure egs.?
    • recovering lead from scrap and waste.
    • lead smelting, refining, alloying and casting;
    • lead-acid battery manufacture and breaking and recycling;
    • manufacturing lead compounds;
    • manufacturing leaded-glass;
    • manufacturing and using pigments, colours and ceramic glazes;
    • working with metallic lead and alloys containing lead, for example soldering;
    • some painting of buildings
    • some spraying of vehicles
  18. employers responsibilities - lead?
    • Introduce control measures, and carry out air monitoring if exposure is ‘significant’
    • Introduce control measures to ensure that the amount of lead in air in the breathing zone of any employee does not exceed the appropriate OEL. (Occupational Exposure Limit).
    • Carry out a regular programme of air monitoring if the assessment shows that the exposure to lead is liable to be significant.
  19. Define significant exposure for lead?
    Where any employee is or is liable to be exposed to a concentration of lead in the atmosphere exceeding half the occupational exposure limit for lead

    Where there is a substantial risk of any employee ingesting lead or

    If there is a risk of an employees skin coming into contact with lead alkyls, or any other substance cotaining lead in a form which can also be absorbed through the skin.
  20. Lead Action levels?
    • Category
    • Action level

    • General employees
    • 50 µg/dl

    • Women capable of having children
    • 25 µg/dl

    • Young people under the age of 18
    • 40 µg/dl
  21. Suspension levels for lead?
    • Category
    • Suspension level

    • General employees
    • 60 µg/dl

    • Women capable of having children
    • 30 µg/dl

    • Young people under the age of 18
    • 50 µg/dl
  22. control of asbestos regs 2012
    control limit for asbestos 0.1f/cm3

    duty to manage asbestos- control of asbestos 2006
  23. COSHH covers what?
    • COSHH covers substances that are hazardous to health. Substances can take many forms and include:
    • (CHIP approved list)
    • chemicals
    • products containing chemicals
    • fumes
    • dusts (10mgm3 inhalable dust/4mgm3 respirable dust)
    • vapours
    • mists
    • nanotechnology
    • gases and asphyxiating gases and
    • biological agents (germs). If the packaging has any of the hazard symbols[1] then it is classed as a hazardous substance.
    • germs that cause diseases[2] such as leptospirosis or legionnaires disease and germs used in laboratories
  24. COSHH does not cover?
    • lead
    • asbestos
    • radiation
  25. when is a control adequate?
    when the risk of harm is as low as reasonably practicable

    This means:

    • All control measures are in good working order.
    • Exposures are below the Workplace Exposure Limit, where one exists.
    • Exposure to substances that cause cancer, asthma or genetic damage is reduced to as low a level as possible
  26. The COSHH regs define good practice in sched 2a how?
    • Design in order to minimise exposure etc
    • Take into account all relevant routes of exposure – inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion – when developing control measures.
    • Control exposure by measures that are proportionate to the health risk.
    • Choose the most effective and reliable control options which minimise the escape and spread of substances hazardous to health.
    • Where adequate control of exposure cannot be achieved by other means, provide, in combination with other control measures, suitable personal protective equipment.
    • Check and review regularly all elements of control measures for their continuing effectiveness.
    • Inform and train all employees on the hazards and risks from the substances they work with and the use of control measures developed to minimise the risks.
    • Ensure that the introduction of control measures does not increase the overall risk to health and safety.
  27. six pack regulations?
    • -management of h and s at work
    • - PPE
    • -DSE
    • -Manual handling operations
    • -workplace health and safety welfare
    • -provision and use of work equipment
  28. what is a prescribed disease?
    -one in which the state compensates a worker

    - criteria for prescription laid in national insurance (industrial industries) act 1946
  29. criteria for prescribed diseases?
    • - disease is a risk of their occupation
    • - listed disease against a list of occupations
    • - relationship between disease and job based on good epidemiological evidence
    • IIAB- industrial injuries advisory board: decides which is a prescribed disease
  30. EH40?
    list of WELs

    COSHH covers: anything with WEL, hazard symbol (CHIP 4), chems, biological, dusts, fumes
  31. R45
    • human carcinogens e.g. benzene, arsenic
    • (keep records 20yrs)
  32. R45
    probable human carcinogens (cat2)
  33. R40
    cause for concern, under research ?? may be carcinogenic
  34. R35
    causes severe burns 3mins
  35. R34
    causes burn damage in 4hrs
  36. COSHH regulations
    reg 6- do a risk assessment

    reg 7- prevent and control exposure

    reg 8- use of control- employee and employer duties
  37. COSHH regulations 9-13?
    9- monitoring of controls

    10- monitoring of workplace exposure

    11- health surveillance

    12 and 13- information instruction training emergency procedures that may need to be followed.
  38. Health effects of shift work?
    Reduction in quality and quantity of sleep

    Widespread complaints of “fatigue”

    Anxiety, depression, and increased neuroticism

    Increasing evidence of adverse cardiovascular effects

    Possible increase in gastrointestinal disorders

    Increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, and prematurity
  39. Control of vibration at work regs 2005
    • two specific exposure values
    • - exposure action value (EAV) 2.5
    • - exposure limit value (ELV)5

    • health surveillance required at EAV 2.5
    • doctors should have recieved relevant training (FOM)
  40. control of noise at work regs 2005
    carry out noise assessments

    health surveillance (audiometry) - reg 9 and part 6 guidance: when upper action level (85dB) is exceeded
  41. manual handling operations regs 1992
    risk assessments of manual handling activities inc repetitive movements

    MAC tool
  42. DSE regs 1992
    sets out requirements for work with VDUs

    • - carry out work station assessments
    • - on request arrange eye tests and provide spectacles if special ones are needed for the work
  43. criteria for health surveillance
    • - there is an identifiable disease or health effect
    • - likely that the disease will occur in the conditions of work
    • - there is a valid technique to identify the disease
    • - surveillance will protect the employee
    • - treatment possible
  44. biological monitoring
    - measuring a substance or its metabolite

    • eg. direct
    • blood- Pb, Cd, pentachlorophenyl, PCBs
    • urine- Co, Ni
    • breth- benzene, alcohol
  45. biological monitoring
    - measuring metabolite

    • eg. indirect
    • blood- carboxyhaemoglobin (dichloromethane exposure)
    • urine- mandelic acid (styrene)
    • urine- trichloro-acetic acid (trichloroethylene)
  46. biological effect monitoring
    measuring the effect of a substance on the body

    • egs.
    • - lead- zinc protoporphyrin (blood) aminolaevulinic acid (urine)

    - organophosphate pesticides- cholinesterases (plasma and erythrocyte)
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