Chapter 9

  1. Blocked Practice
    Leads to better practice performance. This practice becomes more automatice and does little to promote comparisons of similarities and differences...does not produce lasting effects or carry-over.
  2. Random Practice
    • Makes practice more difficult but enhances the learning of multiple skills.
    • Variation in the order of practice; tasks are intermingled or continuously rotated. Leads to better retention retrieval practice. Random practice produces better retention results.
  3. When to use blocked practice?
    When first learning skill, but switch to random soon after.
  4. Especial skills
    One situation to use blocked practice continuously - free throws
  5. Random Variable
    Most difficult form of practice
  6. Schema
    • A set of rules relating movement outcomes to the parameters set by the performer.
    • (Set of rules that relate parameter values to goal)
  7. Constant practice
    • Similar to blocked practice; people rehearse one variation of a task during a session (throwing a dart)
    • No practice in changing parameters
  8. Variable
    Random practice works best for retention and skill improvement
  9. Varied Practice
    • People practice different versions of the same action; rehearsal matches actual performance (throwing a softball)
    • The practice of different versions of the same movement pattern
  10. Generalized Motor Program
    Allows performers to adapt their movements to meet varying environmental demands
  11. Retrieval Practice
    Occurs more frequently during random practice than during blocked practice
  12. Parameterization
    The process of selecting a specific parameter, such as force or movement time, to meet a particular environmental demand
  13. Contextual Interference
    Higher for random practice than for blocked practice
  14. Forgetting Hypothesis
    Learner forgets task A to do task B, then has to relearn or replan the task next time.
  15. Stimulus-identification Stage
    First stage in the information-processing model; recognizing and identifying the input (distance a ball must be thrown)
  16. Response-selection stage
    Second stage; deciding which, if any, response to make (what kind of throw is needed)
  17. Response-proframming Stage
    The third stage; organizing the motor system to produce the desired movement (force, trajectory, release of the throw)
  18. Varied Practice in Schema Development
    Stong, stable rules determine the parameters of the desired action. A schema changes based on past experience and the desired goal.
  19. Best Practice
    A combination of random and varied practice yields the best results. Engaging learners in a correct combination of random and varied practice may yield better performance gains than having them complete either practice schedule independently.
Card Set
Chapter 9
Motor development and learning final