an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food
Messenger RNA - carries the genetic code specifying the amino acid sequence for making proteins
Transfer RNA - carries amino acids to the ribosome
Ribosomal RNA - makes up the majority of ribosomes
a solution that contains more solvent than solute
water moves into the cell
a solution that contains more solute than solvent
water moves out of the cell
the variable that is not affected by any other variables with which it is compared
what gets dissolved in the solvent of a solution
what dissolves the solute in a solution
diffusion of water
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils
any organism that contains a cell type with specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis
the process of replicating DNA
makes mRNA from DNA
all the individuals of one species in a given area
an environmental factor that tends to limit population size
the progressive replacement of one community by another
first organisms in the areas of primary succession
community of species that has reached a steady state
one benefits, another is harmed
one benefits, another is unaffected
process by which humans destroy ecosystems in order to clear land for construction
overuse of natural resources
Part of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait
Alleles that an organism inherits from its parents (letters)
Characteristics that result from the inherited genotype (how it looks)
inorganic molecule, poolarity, density, and solvent properties
organic molecule; monosaccharides are building blocks; supplier of energy and dietary fiber; structural component of cells: cell wall celllose
organic moecule; component of cells: cell membranes; stored energy supply
organic molecule; A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
nucleotides are building blocks- sugar, phosphate, & nitrogen bases; DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single strand; DnA replication
An inorganic species or substance occurring in nature, having a definite chemical composition and usually a distinct crystalline form.
C: healing wounds, K- blood clotting, D bone growth
Diffusion of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.
effect upon enzyme activity and metabolic rate; effect upon rate of diffusion and states of matter
relative values for acids and bases; effect on living systems; cellular orgasmic
A statement on how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable. In if/then form
gaining knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments.
information or facts usually collected as the result of experience, observation or experiment,
The variable that is measured in the experiment. This variable depends on the factor that is changed.
The factor that is changed in an experiment.
an experiment that only tests one variable and controls all other outside forces
a preference towards
a molecule with a negative pole and a positive pole
a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Measured on a scale from 0-1
a solution with a pH below 7
a solution with a pH above 7
mass per unit volume
molecule that does not contain carbon
molecule containing carbon
a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution
solutions that is used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value
an organic molecule made of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Provide quick energy for living things.
organic monomers that are the building blocks of carbohydrates (sugar)
carbohydrate produced by plants during photosynthesis that fuels cellular respiration
carbohydrate made by plants and used as a structural component in the cell wall
carbohydrate produced by plants to store energy
the biological molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane and also used to store high energy. Made of the structural components fatty acids and glycerol.
macromolecules that make up RNA and DNA. Contain the organism's genetic infomation for making proteins
a three-part unit made of a phosphate, a sugar and a nitrogen base
deoxyribonucleic acid made of macromolecules called nucleic acids. In the form of a double helix, it holds all the genetic information for an organism.
ribonucleic acid. made of macromolecules called nucleic acids. Single stranded message that has been transcribed.
an organic molecule made up of amino acids. These determine the future structure and function of a cell and therefore the traits of the organism. (Enzymes are a type of these)
The building blocks of proteins which are coded for by RNA.
Work on specif areas called substrates to speed up chemical reactions. Work best in a narrow range of conditions (pH and temperature)
A molecule upon which an enzyme acts to speed up a reaction
organic compounds used in the body for healing, clotting, growth, etc.(C, D, K)
an inorganic molecules that are used in cellular processes (calcium, potassium, etc.)
A toxin is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms
Control center of the cell. Holds all of a prokaryotic cells DNA
a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane.
the organelle found in the endoplasmic reticulum that gets instructions from the nucleus on how to assemble proteins
releases energy from glucose to generate ATP.
Takes energy from the sun and stores it as glucose
a tough, flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (made of cellulose)
Hair like structures used to increase surface area and movement
Tail like structure used for movement
Glucose is a building block of carbohydrates. Which of these best describes glucose?
A catalase is an enzyme found in plant and animal cells. What type of molecule is catalase?
protein(not nucleic acid)
what is osmosis?(form of passive transport)
osmosis; diffusion of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
role of osmosis in living systems (basic term of osmosis: diffusion)
homeostasis; helps cells maintain equilibrium in their environment; When water diffuses across a cell membrane, it can also transport other important substances such as sodium, glucose…important for cell function and energy; If materials could not diffuse, cells would not survive because they could not take in or excrete).
what is true about photosynthesis & respiration?
Photosynthesis produces oxygen; respiration does not.
what cell structure contains molecules that direct cell activities?
what structures transport water throughout the plant?
A particular toxin prevents cellular production of usable energy.
Cells that are affected by this toxin are unable to carry out many of
their normal functions.what organelle would be most directly harmed by this toxin? what process least affected?
most harmed: mitochondria least affected: diffusion
which of these does not occur during meiosis?
A production of identical gametes
B production of new gene combinations
C crossing-over of homologous chromosomes
D reduction of chromosome number by one-half
A) production of identical gametes
The genetic information for making a protein must move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Which of these moves this information to the cytoplasm?
a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
in meiosis, you have to divide by 2 to find the amount of chromosomes in each gamete
A cellular process uses a strand of genetic material to produce a new strand. Parts of the strands are shown below. Original strand ATT CAG. New strand UAA GUC. This new strand will most likely be used for
The explanation of how DNA determines a trait is enhanced by scientific terminology (Chromosomes contain many strands of DNA. A part of each strand relates to a specific gene, for instance, widow's peak).
Explain the expression of the trait (If there is one combination the individual may have widow's peak. If there is another combination the individual may not have widow's peak).
The two possible genotypes of the child are HH or Hh. The phenotype of the child is that he/she will have a widow's peak because of having genotypes with the dominant allele (H). DNA determines a trait such as widow's peak during meiosis. The child inherits the trait during the transfer of chromosomes. When the DNA is made, it codes for all of the traits by making specific proteins which give the phenotype.
Marine and land iguanas are two different species that inhabit the Galapagos Islands. Some scientists believe that both species diverged from a common ancestor. Marine iguanas eat algae. Land iguanas feed on cacti. Algae are more abundant in the ocean than cacti are on the islands. Both species lay their eggs in the sand.Rats, cats, and
goats have recently been introduced to the islands. Rats often feed on iguana eggs, cats eat baby iguanas, and goats eat cacti. Explain how the two species of iguanas could have developed from a common ancestor. In your response, be sure toname the process that explains how marine and land iguanas developed from a common ancestordescribe the steps involved in this processexplain how the introduction of rats, cats, and goats might affect both iguana species
The iguanas could have had a common ansector. Through the process of natural selection the species split. An inguana could have had a natural adaptation that allowed it to digest algae better. It could hae lived closer to the ocean. Then the iguana reproduced and created a new species. The iguanas evolved into what they are today. Survival of the fittest allows the iguanas to reproduce more offspring so the trait that allowed the iguana to digest algae got passed down from generation to generationIf rats eat all of the iguana eggs then the iguanas wont have any offspring. The more eggs the rats eat the less chance of survival the species of iguanas have. The same is with rats. If rats eat baby iguana then the iguanas will ahve a less chance of surviving and may become extinct. On the other hand, through the process of natural selection and survival of the fittest, the fastes and most elusive baby iguansas will survive and evolve. Since the goats eat cactci only the speies of iguana hat eat cacti will be affected. There will be less and less foci for the iguanas to eat. The iguanas that can survive with the least amount of food have a better chance of reproducing and creating more offspring.
hypothesis does not have to be an "if, then" statement. that is your testable statement?
you always need to compare the results to a control group. the control group cannot be nothing.
Which of these supply the main energy source used in cellular respiration?
B amino acids
C nucleic acids
The cell wall of a plant helps the plant cell maintain its shape.
What is the main structural component of the cell wall of a plant?
C amino acid
D nucleic acid
When the cells of most organisms freeze, they burst (лопаться). Which property of water causes this to occur?
B Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid.
During photosynthesis, trees convert carbon dioxide and other materials to
Which of these is most affected in the cells of the goldfish when the water temperature is lowered?
A enzyme activity
which of these is the process by which water moves across a selectively permeable membrane?
a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light.
organelles that contain the chlorophyll pigment
Look at the DNA sequence below.
GAA TTC GCA
What do the G and A represent in the DNA sequence?