Biology HSA

  1. Autotroph
    any organism capable of self-nourishment
  2. Heterotroph
    an organism requiring organic compounds for its principal source of food
  3. mRNA
    Messenger RNA - carries the genetic code specifying the amino acid sequence for making proteins
  4. tRNA
    Transfer RNA - carries amino acids to the ribosome
  5. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA - makes up the majority of ribosomes
  6. Hypotonic
    • a solution that contains more solvent than solute
    • water moves into the cell
  7. Hypertonic
    • a solution that contains more solute than solvent
    • water moves out of the cell
  8. Independent Variable
    the variable that is not affected by any other variables with which it is compared
  9. Solute
    what gets dissolved in the solvent of a solution
  10. Solvent
    what dissolves the solute in a solution
  11. Osmosis
    diffusion of water
  12. Prokaryote
    any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils
  13. Eukaryote
    any organism that contains a cell type with specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, a membrane-bound nucleus enclosing genetic material organized into chromosomes, and an elaborate system of division by mitosis
  14. DNA Replication
    the process of replicating DNA
  15. Transcription
    makes mRNA from DNA
  16. Population
    all the individuals of one species in a given area
  17. Limiting Factor
    an environmental factor that tends to limit population size
  18. Ecological Succession
    the progressive replacement of one community by another
  19. Pioneer Species
    first organisms in the areas of primary succession
  20. Climax Community
    • community of species that has reached a steady state
    • ex: forest
  21. Parasitism
    one benefits, another is harmed
  22. Mutualism
    both benefit
  23. Comensalism
    one benefits, another is unaffected
  24. Urbanization
    process by which humans destroy ecosystems in order to clear land for construction
  25. Resource Depletion
    overuse of natural resources
  26. Gene
    Part of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait
  27. Genotype
    Alleles that an organism inherits from its parents (letters)
  28. Phenotype
    Characteristics that result from the inherited genotype (how it looks)
  29. Water
    inorganic molecule, poolarity, density, and solvent properties
  30. Carbohydrates
    organic molecule; monosaccharides are building blocks; supplier of energy and dietary fiber; structural component of cells: cell wall celllose
  31. lipids
    organic moecule; component of cells: cell membranes; stored energy supply
  32. proteins
    organic molecule; A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
  33. nucleic acid
    nucleotides are building blocks- sugar, phosphate, & nitrogen bases; DNA is a double helix, RNA is a single strand; DnA replication
  34. minerals
    An inorganic species or substance occurring in nature, having a definite chemical composition and usually a distinct crystalline form.
  35. Vitamins
    C: healing wounds, K- blood clotting, D bone growth
  36. osmosis
    Diffusion of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.
  37. temperature
    effect upon enzyme activity and metabolic rate; effect upon rate of diffusion and states of matter
  38. ph scale
    relative values for acids and bases; effect on living systems; cellular orgasmic
  39. Hypothesis
    A statement on how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable. In if/then form
  40. Observation
    gaining knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments.
  41. Data
    information or facts usually collected as the result of experience, observation or experiment,
  42. Dependent Variable
    The variable that is measured in the experiment. This variable depends on the factor that is changed.
  43. Independent Variable
    The factor that is changed in an experiment.
  44. Controlled Experiment
    an experiment that only tests one variable and controls all other outside forces
  45. Bias
    a preference towards
  46. polar molecule
    a molecule with a negative pole and a positive pole
  47. pH Scale
    a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Measured on a scale from 0-1
  48. acid
    a solution with a pH below 7
  49. base
    a solution with a pH above 7
  50. density
    mass per unit volume
  51. inorganic molecule
    molecule that does not contain carbon
  52. organic molecule
    molecule containing carbon
  53. solvent
    a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution
  54. buffer
    solutions that is used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value
  55. carbohydrate
    an organic molecule made of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Provide quick energy for living things.
  56. monosaccharide
    organic monomers that are the building blocks of carbohydrates (sugar)
  57. glucose
    carbohydrate produced by plants during photosynthesis that fuels cellular respiration
  58. cellulose
    carbohydrate made by plants and used as a structural component in the cell wall
  59. starch
    carbohydrate produced by plants to store energy
  60. lipids
    the biological molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane and also used to store high energy. Made of the structural components fatty acids and glycerol.
  61. nucleic acid
    macromolecules that make up RNA and DNA. Contain the organism's genetic infomation for making proteins
  62. nucleotide
    a three-part unit made of a phosphate, a sugar and a nitrogen base
  63. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid made of macromolecules called nucleic acids. In the form of a double helix, it holds all the genetic information for an organism.
  64. RNA
    ribonucleic acid. made of macromolecules called nucleic acids. Single stranded message that has been transcribed.
  65. Protein
    an organic molecule made up of amino acids. These determine the future structure and function of a cell and therefore the traits of the organism. (Enzymes are a type of these)
  66. amino acid
    The building blocks of proteins which are coded for by RNA.
  67. enzyme
    Work on specif areas called substrates to speed up chemical reactions. Work best in a narrow range of conditions (pH and temperature)
  68. substrate
    A molecule upon which an enzyme acts to speed up a reaction
  69. vitamin
    organic compounds used in the body for healing, clotting, growth, etc.(C, D, K)
  70. mineral
    an inorganic molecules that are used in cellular processes (calcium, potassium, etc.)
  71. toxin
    A toxin is a poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms
  72. Nucleus
    Control center of the cell. Holds all of a prokaryotic cells DNA
  73. Organelle
    a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane.
  74. Ribosome
    the organelle found in the endoplasmic reticulum that gets instructions from the nucleus on how to assemble proteins
  75. Mitochondria
    releases energy from glucose to generate ATP.
  76. Chloroplast
    Takes energy from the sun and stores it as glucose
  77. Cell Wall
    a tough, flexible and sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (made of cellulose)
  78. Cilia
    Hair like structures used to increase surface area and movement
  79. Flagella
    Tail like structure used for movement
  80. Glucose is a building block of carbohydrates. Which of these best describes glucose?
  81. A catalase is an enzyme found in plant and animal cells. What type of molecule is catalase?
    protein(not nucleic acid)
  82. what is osmosis?(form of passive transport)
    osmosis; diffusion of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  83. role of osmosis in living systems (basic term of osmosis: diffusion)
    homeostasis; helps cells maintain equilibrium in their environment; When water diffuses across a cell membrane, it can also transport other important substances such as sodium, glucose…important for cell function and energy; If materials could not diffuse, cells would not survive because they could not take in or excrete).
  84. what is true about photosynthesis & respiration?
    Photosynthesis produces oxygen; respiration does not.
  85. what cell structure contains molecules that direct cell activities?
  86. what structures transport water throughout the plant?
    vascular tissues
  87. A particular toxin prevents cellular production of usable energy.
    Cells that are affected by this toxin are unable to carry out many of
    their normal functions.what organelle would be most directly harmed by this toxin? what process least affected?
    most harmed: mitochondria least affected: diffusion
  88. which of these does not occur during meiosis?
    A production of identical gametes
    B production of new gene combinations
    C crossing-over of homologous chromosomes
    D reduction of chromosome number by one-half
    A) production of identical gametes
  89. The genetic information for making a protein must move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Which of these moves this information to the cytoplasm?

    A) RNA
  90. Gamete
    a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
  91. in meiosis, you have to divide by 2 to find the amount of chromosomes in each gamete
  92. A cellular process uses a strand of genetic material to produce a new strand. Parts of the strands are shown below. Original strand ATT CAG. New strand UAA GUC. This new strand will most likely be used for
    protein synthesis
  93. The explanation of how DNA determines a trait is enhanced by scientific terminology (Chromosomes contain many strands of DNA. A part of each strand relates to a specific gene, for instance, widow's peak).
    Explain the expression of the trait (If there is one combination the individual may have widow's peak. If there is another combination the individual may not have widow's peak).
    The two possible genotypes of the child are HH or Hh. The phenotype of the child is that he/she will have a widow's peak because of having genotypes with the dominant allele (H). DNA determines a trait such as widow's peak during meiosis. The child inherits the trait during the transfer of chromosomes. When the DNA is made, it codes for all of the traits by making specific proteins which give the phenotype.
  94. Marine and land iguanas are two different species that inhabit the Galapagos Islands. Some scientists believe that both species diverged from a common ancestor. Marine iguanas eat algae. Land iguanas feed on cacti. Algae are more abundant in the ocean than cacti are on the islands. Both species lay their eggs in the sand.Rats, cats, and
    goats have recently been introduced to the islands. Rats often feed on iguana eggs, cats eat baby iguanas, and goats eat cacti. Explain how the two species of iguanas could have developed from a common ancestor. In your response, be sure toname the process that explains how marine and land iguanas developed from a common ancestordescribe the steps involved in this processexplain how the introduction of rats, cats, and goats might affect both iguana species
    The iguanas could have had a common ansector. Through the process of natural selection the species split. An inguana could have had a natural adaptation that allowed it to digest algae better. It could hae lived closer to the ocean. Then the iguana reproduced and created a new species. The iguanas evolved into what they are today. Survival of the fittest allows the iguanas to reproduce more offspring so the trait that allowed the iguana to digest algae got passed down from generation to generationIf rats eat all of the iguana eggs then the iguanas wont have any offspring. The more eggs the rats eat the less chance of survival the species of iguanas have. The same is with rats. If rats eat baby iguana then the iguanas will ahve a less chance of surviving and may become extinct. On the other hand, through the process of natural selection and survival of the fittest, the fastes and most elusive baby iguansas will survive and evolve. Since the goats eat cactci only the speies of iguana hat eat cacti will be affected. There will be less and less foci for the iguanas to eat. The iguanas that can survive with the least amount of food have a better chance of reproducing and creating more offspring.
  95. hypothesis does not have to be an "if, then" statement. that is your testable statement?
    you always need to compare the results to a control group. the control group cannot be nothing.
  96. Which of these supply the main energy source used in cellular respiration?
    A lipids
    B amino acids
    C nucleic acids
    D carbohydrates
  97. The cell wall of a plant helps the plant cell maintain its shape.
    What is the main structural component of the cell wall of a plant?
    A lipid
    B cellulose
    C amino acid
    D nucleic acid
  98. When the cells of most organisms freeze, they burst (лопаться). Which property of water causes this to occur?

    B Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid.
  99. During photosynthesis, trees convert carbon dioxide and other materials to

    C sugars
  100. Which of these is most affected in the cells of the goldfish when the water temperature is lowered?

    A enzyme activity
  101. which of these is the process by which water moves across a selectively permeable membrane?

    C osmosis
  102. Chlorophyll
    • a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
    • Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light.
  103. Chloroplasts
    organelles that contain the chlorophyll pigment
  104. Look at the DNA sequence below.
    What do the G and A represent in the DNA sequence?

    A nitrogen bases
  105. Allele
    one of two or more forms of a gene
Card Set
Biology HSA
Biology HSA